Skip to Main Content

CRJU: Criminal Law Online

A course guide of open education resources for faculty teaching Criminal Law.

Overview and Objectives


In this module, we study the various participants involved in crimes and their criminal liability based on their respective roles. 

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, students should:

  • Identify 4 common law and 2 modern day categories of parties to crime.
  • Describe the elements for accomplice liability (principal in the 1st vs. 2nd degree)
  • Describe the elements accessory liability (before vs. after the fact)
  • Define the natural and probable causes doctrine
  • Explain vicarious/corporate liability.


Readings and Lectures

Chapter 7: Parties to Crime

Parties to crime and inchoate offenses

Case Examples

Joyce Mitchell: ‘I Deserve To Be Punished’ For Helping Inmates Escape | TODAY

In an exclusive jailhouse interview with TODAY’s Matt Lauer, Joyce Mitchell, a worker in the Clinton Correctional Facility’s prison tailor shop who aided in the jailbreak of convicted killers Richard Matt and David Sweat.

How Two Convicted Killers Escaped a Maximum Security Prison | Nightline | ABC News

Two inmates are still on the run as investigators question a prison employee in their probe of the dramatic escape.