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Physics & Astronomy: Subject Guide: Citation Styles

AIP Style (American Institute of Physics)

AIP Style is published by the American Institute of Physics. The most recent publication is the 4th Edition (1990).

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IEEE Citation Style Summary

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) style is a citation format primarily used in physical sciences and engineering.

Similar to other citation styles, IEEE style requires In-Text References and an End-of-Paper Reference Section: 

In-Text References:

To cite a source in the body of your paper (in-text reference), note it on the line in the square brackets and before the punctuation as in the examples shown below::

        ....confirmed by Galileo [5]; mentioned earlier [17], [1–[7], [3];

        ....Curie et al. [25]

            Note: Use et al. when a reference source has three or more authors.

End-of-paper References:

  • Include all sources you have cited in your paper as in-text references.
  • General formats for some common sources are as follows:
    • Journal Article (accessed from online database) ​:  Author Initials. Author surname,  "Article title," Magazine/Journal titlevolume no., issue no., Page accessed. Publication Month Publication Year. Available: Database name, Article URL, [Date accessed]. 
    • Book:  Author Initials. Author surname,  "Book title," Edition, Place of publication (City, State/Province); Publisher, Publication Month Publication Year.
    • Patent/Standard: Inventor initials. Inventor surname,  "Invention title," Country, Patent number; Patent date month, year.

Note:   Use the "issued date" if several dates are given.

If you can't find the author name, article title will come first.

Numbered the sources in the order as they are cited in the text. For example:


[1] M. T. Kimour and D. Meslati, “Deriving objects from use cases in real-time embedded systems,” Information and Software  Technology, vol. 47, no. 8, p. 533, June 2005. Available: ProQuest, [Accessed November 12, 2007].

[2] W. K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press, 2003.

[3] K. Kimura and A. Lipeles, “Fuzzy controller component,” U. S. Patent 14, 860,040, 14 Dec., 2006.


For more information on IEEE style and source formats, use the How to Cite References: IEEE Documentation Style.

IEEE Style Examples

Electronic Documents


[1] L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman, Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book.

Journal Article Abstract (accessed from online database)

[1]  M. T. Kimour and D. Meslati, “Deriving objects from use cases in real-time embedded systems,” Information and Software Technology, vol. 47, no. 8, p. 533, June 2005. [Abstract]. Ava ilable: ProQuest, [Accessed November 12, 2007].

Journal Article in Scholarly Journal (published free of charge on the Internet)

[2] A. Altun, “Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners’ experience,” Current Issues in Education, vol. 6, no. 12, July, 2005. [Online serial]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2007].

Newspaper Article from the Internet

[3] C. Wilson-Clark, “Computers ranked as key literacy,” The Atlanta Journal Constitution, para. 3, March 29, 2007. [Online], Available: [Accessed Sept. 18, 2007].

Internet Documents

Professional Internet Site

[1] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, “Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Implementation guide for DVB terrestrial services; transmission aspects,” European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ETSI-TR-101, 2007. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Nov. 12, 2007].

General Internet Site

[2] J. Geralds, “Sega Ends Production of Dreamcast,”, para. 2, Jan. 31, 2007. [Online]. Available: [Accessed Sept. 12, 2007].  


[4] J. Aston. “RE: new location, okay?” Personal email (July 3, 2007).  


[8] Thomson ISI, Endnote 7. [CD-ROM]. Berkeley, CA: ISI ResearchSoft, 2006.


[1] S. Bhanndahar. ECE 4321. Class Lecture, Topic: “Bluetooth can’t help you.” School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, Jan. 9, 2008.

Print Documents

Edited Book

[2] J. L. Spudich and B. H. Satir, Eds., Sensory Receptors and Signal Transduction. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001.

Selection in an Edited Book

[3] E. D. Lipson and B. D. Horwitz, “Photosensory reception and transduction,” in Sensory Receptors and Signal Transduction, J. L. Spudich and B. H. Satir, Eds. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001, pp-1-64.

Book by an Institutional or Organizational Author

[5] Council of Biology Editors, Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th ed., Chicago: Cambridge University Press, 2006.


[6] Bell Telephone Laboratories Technical Staff, Transmission System for Communication, Bell Telephone Lab, 2005.

Technical Report

[8] K. E. Elliott and C. M. Greene, “A local adaptive protocol,” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, France, Tech. Report. 916-1010-BB, 7 Apr. 2007.  

Government Publication

[11] National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Pocket Statistics. Washington, DC: Office of Headquarters Operations, 2007.

Paper Published in Conference Proceedings

[12] J. Smith, R. Jones, and K. Trello, “Adaptive filtering in data communications with self improved error reference,” In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications ’04, 2004, pp. 65-68.

Papers Presented at Conferences (unpublished)

[13] H. A. Nimr, “Defuzzification of the outputs of fuzzy controllers,” presented at 5th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Cairo, Egypt, 2006.

Thesis or Dissertation (unpublished)

[14] H. Zhang, “Delay-insensitive networks,” M. S. thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 2007.  

Journal Articles

Article in Journal (paginated by annual volume)

[8] K. A. Nelson, R. J. Davis, D. R. Lutz, and W. Smith, “Optical generation of tunable ultrasonic waves,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 2, Feb., pp. 1144-1149, 2002.

Article in Professional Journal (paginated by issue)

[9] J. Attapangittya, “Social studies in gibberish,” Quarterly Review of Doublespeak, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 9-10, 2003.

Article in Monthly or Bimonthly Periodical

[10] J. Fallows, “Networking technology,” Atlantic Monthly, Jul., pp. 34-36, 2007.

Article in Daily, Weekly, or Biweekly Newspaper or Magazine

[11] B. Metcalfe, “The numbers show how slowly the Internet runs today,” Infoworld, 30 Sep., p. 34, 2006.