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Digital Literacies: A Guide to Higher Education Applications: PEDAGOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE AND HYBRID CLASSES


Kyei-Blankson, L., Godwyll, F., & Nur-Awaleh, M. A. (2014). Innovative blended delivery and learning: exploring student choice, experience, and level of satisfaction in a hyflex courseInternational Journal of Innovation and Learning, 16(3), 243-252. 

Examined student choice, learning experience, and level of satisfaction with a hyflex course.Students reported very high levels of satisfaction (9.44 average out of 10) and positive/meaningful learning experiences.. Most appreciated were the flexibility and convenience.


Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Schmid, R. F., Tamin, R. M., & Abrami, P. C. (2014). A meta-analysis of blended learning and technology use in higher education: From the general to the applied. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 26(1), 87-122. 

The meta-anlysis found that technology has an overall postitve effect on learning, but aims to focus on blended learning and interaction with technology in higher education. Concluded that Blended Learning and technological interaction enhance student achievement.


Aly, I. i. (2013). Performance in an online introductory course in a hybrid classroom settingCanadian Journal Of Higher Education, 43(2), 85-99.

Purpose of study was to show that students enrolled in an online introductory university course could perform as well as students in the same course offered as a hybrid. The findings supported the hypothesis: There was no statistically significant difference in the students' overall performance between the hybrid section and the online section. Conclusion: Robust teaching methods are far more imperative for student learning than the medium of delivery. In other words, students can get the same learning from taking a purely online course as they can from taking a course that includes face-to-face instruction -- it's up to the faculty member to design a good online course -- one that promotes an interactive virtual community with immediate feedback.


Quarless, D., & Nieto, F. (2013). Exploring hybrid instruction in science: Using LMS for contextual, interdisciplinary active learning enrichmentJournal of Technology Systems, 41(3), 279-292.

Online components encourage self-regulated learning. Use of Learning Management Systems (LMS) increases student achievement and course retention. Notes the helpfulness of blending learning in the sciences, large group settings, and distance learning settings.


Miller, B. M., Risser, M. D., & Griffiths, R. P. (2013). Student choice, instructor flexibility: Moving behond the blended instructional model. Issues and Trends in Educational Technology, 1(1).

Students reported that the instructional technology designed to allow online attendance made the subject more interesting, increased their understanding, and encouraged participation via technology. There was no significant difference in grades between those who attended in person vs. online. This was a hyflex course.


Hege, B. A. R. (2011). The online theology classroom: Strategies for engaging a community of distance learners in a hybrid model of online educationTeaching Theology & Religion, 14(1), 13-20.

Good case study. Author offers suggestions for how to create an effective online community for courses that are either taught entirely online or as hybrid. Instructors must pay careful attention to relationship between technology and pedagogy. Online activities mimic in-class discussions and allow students to understand their learning and allows instructors to gauge how well students are understanding the material. 


Shivets, C. (2011). E-learning and blended learning: The importance of the learner: A research literature review. International Journal on E-learning, 10(3), 331-337.

Reviews studies from mid 00's that show student motivation is an important factor in the success of an online/blended course. The more active students are in the online component, the more successful they will be. Important qualities of a good online/hyrbird course: technology reliability, engagement and enthusiasm of instructor, ease of access to required course materials/readings, clarity of instructions/expectations, and strong online community. Also important for success: students' prior experience with technology.


Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., Bakia, M., & Jones, K. (2010). Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Students in online conditions performed modestly better, on average, than those learning the same material through traditional face-to-face instruction. Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction than did purely online instruction.


Gradel, K., & Edson, A. J. (2010-2011). Cooperative learning: Smart pedagogy and tools for online and hybrid courses. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 39(2), 193-212.

Identifies the importance of discussion and cooperative learning as a part of online learning, and that if approached with tact, could create better discussion between students. Offers suggestions on how to integrate technology effectively. Suggests use of technology pushes boundaries of cooperative learning, critical thinking, and problem-solving.


Gerbic, P. (2011). Teaching using a blended approach - what does the literature tell us? Educational Media International, 48(3), 221-234. 

Directly discusses teacher perspective on blended learning. Teachers recognized blended learning to: help students develop and apply new concepts, importance of alignment of media with content and discussion. Recognizes benefits of technology to reinforce content, and encourage collaboration. 


Cacciamani, S., Cesareni, D., Martini, F., Ferrini, T., & Fujita, N. (2012). Influence of participation, facilitator styles, and metacognitive reflection on knowledge building in online university courses. Computers & Education, 58(3), 874-884.

Undergraduate students participated in an in-depth and epistemic agency when provided with blended learning opportunities. Online learning shows to help facilitate the creation of new knowledge. Concludes student participation is critical to the success of online learning.


Yuen, A.H.K. (2011). Exploring teaching approaches in blended learning. Research & Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 6(1), 3-23.

Teachers and students liked blending learning in terms of easier communication between parties, and constant availability of resources. Technology assisted self-learning time, namely when students could not contact a teacher.