You need permission if your use does not fall under any of the listed exceptions. You can sometimes seek free permission; other cases require a license fee.
When seeking free permission, first try to identify the copyright holder. This will probably be either the publisher or the work, or the author. Then, send a request where you:
To license the use of a work, the easiest method is to work through a collective rights agency. Alternatively, you can contact the copyright holder directly, usually the publisher.