Shane Landrum, Florida International University, explains how and why historians use footnotes. Many of these concepts are applicable to other disciplines.
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Every scholar (INCLUDING YOU!) must cite their sources, both primary and secondary.
This is to allow other scholars (including you!) to follow the trail of evidence being used to support an argument.
References can be in several formats, depending on the citation style used.
The most common citation styles are:
(Always ask your professor what citation style they want you to use for your writing assignments!)
In Chicago style, the most common formats for references are:
In MLA style, the most common format for references is
In APA style, the most common format for references is
The Research and Citation section of Purdue University's OWL site also includes helpful quick overviews and sample citations from the main citation styles (including Chicago, MLA, and APA)
Common Chicago Manual of Style abbreviations:
ed. or trans.: "edited by" and "translated by." Useful names to know, but distinct from a work's author. For a collection of essays etc., usually the editor's name is what's given as author, i.e. "Smith, John, ed., Soooo-EEE!: Essays on Hog Calling."
ibid.: "in the same place." Citation is to the same source given in previous footnote or endnote. ***The new Chicago Manual (2018) is discouraging use of ibid. in current references, but anything published prior to 2018 may include "ibid." in its references.
n.d.: "no date." Means the date of publication is unknown.
n.p.: "no place." Means the place of publication is unknown.
para.: paragraph, can be used when citing material on a website
For a complete list of scholarly abbreviations in the Chicago Manual of Style, see section 10.43 of the hard copy manual (or search for section 10.43 in Chicago Manual of Style Online).
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