* References should be numbered consecutively with superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they are cited in the text.
* Use initials without periods for author names and do not put space between the initials: Smith IP.
* Abbreviate and italicize journal titles. See the NLM Journals database for abbreviations.
* If there are more than six authors list only the first three, followed by "et al".
* Titles are in sentence style, not capitalized.
* Use a DOI (digital object identifier) instead of a URL if available. If a DOI is used you do not need to note the "Accessed on" date.
From Cite right: A quick guide to citation styles--MLA, APA, Chicago, the sciences, professions, and more, by Charles Lipson.
Cite a passage in text by placing a superscript Arabic numeral following the citation. Then number the reference list in order as they appear in the text.
The report1 found that...
As has been noted previously,2
This argument was refuted in another study.3
Other reports4,5confirm these findings. (Note: Two sources are cited.)
"...as has been the conclusion of this author."6 (Note: Use after direct quotation.)
In recent reports1,3-5,9surgical outcomes have been... (Note: Multiple sources cited; not all are consecutive.)
You may cite the same source more than once by using the same endnote number. However, when you repeat a number, you should include a page number, in parentheses, next to the note number.
The data1(p44) disproves the previous assertion...
See pages 41-44 of the AMA Manual of Style for more information.
Article in a print journal:
Narducci E, Waltz A, Gorski K, Leppla L, Donaldson M. The clinical utility of functional performance tests within one-year post-acl reconstruction: a systematic review. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2011;6(4):333-342.
Online article from a database (such as EBSCO):
Online article from web site:
Online article from newspaper
Book - author:
(As with articles, if there are more than six authors list only the first three, followed by "et al".)
Book - editor:
Book - chapter:
Book - no author:
Include as much of the following as you can determine: Author of the content, page title, title of the site, URL, and access date. Use a DOI (digital object identifier) instead of a URL if available. If a DOI is used you do not need to note the "Accessed on" date.
Web site - with DOI
Web site - with URL
The AMA Manual of Style is the American Medical Association's official guide to writing for publication in science journals.