Shane Landrum, Florida International University, explains how and why historians use footnotes.
The GSU Library has copies of all major style manuals at these locations:
Or, try this online resource, which includes citation information for the major style manuals:
Every scholar (INCLUDING YOU!) must cite their sources, both primary and secondary.
This is to allow other scholars (including you!) to follow the trail of evidence being used to support an argument.
References can be in several formats, depending on the citation style used.
Most historians use the Chicago Manual of Style, also known as Chicago style.
In Chicago style, the most common formats for references are:
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Historians generally use the Chicago Manual of Style or its derivative, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (commonly known as Turabian, after its author). Though not identical, the two styles are very similar.
The Chicago/Turabian style offers two systems:
Common Chicago Manual of Style abbreviations:
ed. or trans.: "edited by" and "translated by." Useful names to know, but distinct from a work's author. For a collection of essays etc., usually the editor's name is what's given as author, i.e. "Smith, John, ed., Soooo-EEE!: Essays on Hog Calling."
ibid.: "in the same place." Citation is to the same source given in previous footnote or endnote.
n.d.: "no date." Means the date of publication is unknown.
n.p.: "no place." Means the place of publication is unknown.
para.: paragraph, can be used when citing material on a website
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