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Mining References - Humanities: What Am I Looking At? Reading Footnotes

Building Blocks of a Reference

      The basic components of a reference are:

  • Author
  • Title (for an article, the article title comes first, followed by journal title)
  • Publication information (publisher location/name)
  • Date
  • Page numbers (where applicable)
  • Online access information (where applicable)

Creative Commons licensed image by Flickr user Holger Zscheyge

Chicago Citation Basics: Footnotes and Endnotes

Citations include key elements that allow sources to be identified and located. These elements vary depending upon the type of resource.

Standard Chicago Manual of Style formats for basic cited items in
FOOTNOTES / ENDNOTES:

BOOK

First and Last Name of Author, Book Title: Subtitle (Where Published: Name of Publisher, Year), page numbers.

BOOK CHAPTER

First and Last Name of Author, "Chapter Title," in Book Title: Subtitle, ed. by First and Last Name (Where Published: Name of Publisher, Year), page numbers.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

First and Last Name of Author [only if known], "Article Title" Journal Name Volume Number, Issue Number (Month Year): page numbers, URL [if available electronically].

MAGAZINE ARTICLE

First and Last Name of Author [only if known], "Article Title," Magazine Name, Month Day, Year, page number.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

First and Last Name of Author [only if known], "Article Title," Newspaper Name, Month Day, Year.

FILM/TELEVISION (DVD or VIDEOCASSETTE)

First and Last Name of Author(s) [only if known], "Episode Title [if relevant]," Film Title, directed by Name of Director (Original Date of Release; Where DVD/Videocassette Published: DVD Release Company, Date of DVD/Videocassette Release), Format [DVD or VIdeocassette]. 

ONLINE VIDEO

Complicated! See Chicago Manual of Style Online's explanation here (use Campus ID and password to access).

Chicago Citation Basics: Bibliography

Standard Chicago Manual of Style formats for basic cited items in a
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

BOOK

Last Name, First Name. Book Title: Subtitle. Where Published: Name of Publisher, Year.

BOOK CHAPTER

Last Name, First Name. "Chapter Title." In Book Title: Subtitle, page numbers. Edited by First and Last Name. Where Published: Name of Publisher, Year.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Journal Name Volume Number, Issue Number (Month Year): page numbers, URL [if available electronically].

MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Magazine Name. Month Day, Year, page numbers.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

Last Name, First Name [only if known]. "Article Title." Newspaper Name, Month Day, Year.

FILM/TELEVISION (DVD or VIDEOCASSETTE)

Last Name, First Name of Author(s) [only if known]. "Episode Title [if relevant]," Film Title. Directed by Name of Director. Original Date of Release; Where DVD Published: DVD Release Company, Date of DVD Release. Format [i.e. DVD or Videocassette].

ONLINE VIDEO

Complicated! See Chicago Manual of Style Online's explanation here (use Campus ID and password to access).

MLA Citation Basics: Footnotes and Endnotes

In MLA Style, footnotes and endnotes are used for brief explanatory or digressive notes, which do not necessarily include citations. MLA does allow for bibliographic footnotes/endnotes, which refer to other publications the readers may want to consult. The bibliographic footnotes/endnotes will be keyed to the Works Cited list.

For example, a footnote or endnote might read: "See Ehrenreich, chapter 3, for an insightful analysis of the rise of Playboy magazine."

You could then look at the Works Cited list (start with the "E"s) and find this citation for a book by Barbara Ehrenreich:

Ehrenreich, Barbara. The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment. Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1983.

MLA Citation Basics: Works Cited

BOOK

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

BOOK CHAPTER/WORK IN ANTHOLOGY OR COLLECTION

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Author(s) [Last Name, First Name]. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Author(s) [Last Name, First Name]. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

Author(s) [Last Name, First Name]. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, edition if relevant, pages.

FILM/TELEVISION (DVD or VIDEOCASSETTE)

Title. Directed by First Name Last Name, performances by First Name Last Name, First Name Last Name,  and First Name Last Name, Film Studio/Distributor, Release Year.  

ONLINE VIDEO

Last Name, First Name, director. Title. Rubier, Jeremy, director. Platform, uploaded by Name of Uploader. Month Year, URL. 

Still Don't Recognize It?

The online and print versions of the Chicago Manual of Style and the MLA Handbook contain many more examples of references.