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***Citation Styles: APA

APA citation basics

This is the basic in-text APA form: (Critser, 2003, p. 5).  If the author's name is mentioned in the text, it can be omitted from the citation.

Bibliographic entries are alphabetized under the heading "References."  For scholarly journal articles, the following information should be listed, in this order: authors' names; year of publication; article title; journal title; volume number; issue number; page numbers.  For articles retrieved electronically, the digital object identifier (doi) number should be given if available.

For books, the following should be listed, in this order: authors' or editors' names; date of publication; book title; edition (if other than first); place of publication; publisher's name.

For websites, the following should be listed, in this order: author; date; title; date retrieved; URL.

APA recommends that citations be double-spaced.  Check with your professors to see if this is required for papers in their classes.

Citing Books

Reference list:

Perkins, K. A., Conklin, C. A., & Levine, M. D.  (2008).  Cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation: A practical guidebook to the most effective treatments.  New York: Routledge.

In-text citation formats:

(Perkins,  Conklin & Levine, 2008)

Perkins, Conklin, and Levine (2008) found....

Subsequent citations, 3 to 5 authors: (Perkins et al.)

For citations with six or more authors, include only the first author's last name and et al. for in-text citations.  In-text citations for articles are essentially the same as for books.

Edited book:

Heilbrun, K, Goldstein, N. E. S., & Redding, R. E. (Eds.)  (2005).  Juvenile delinquency: Prevention, assessment, and intervention.   New York: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in book:

Palmer, E. J. (2008).  Criminal thinking.  In D. Carson, R. Milne, F. Pakes, K. Shalev, & A. Shawyer (Eds.), Applying psychology to criminal justice (pp. 147-165).  New York: John Wiley.


Citing Articles

Citation to print journal article:

Fazlioglu, Y., & Baran, G. (2008). A sensory integration program on sensory problems for children with autism. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 106, 116-422.

(Note: Most GSU social science faculty will accept this format if you are citing the PDF format of an article retrieved electronically from a database, since the PDF format is exactly the same as the print.  Most scholarly journals are continuously paginated throughout a volume.  The issue number is unnecessary to include unless the issues are paginated separately.)

Goldstein, G., Luther, J. F., Jacoby, A. M., Haas, G. L., & Gordon, A. J. (2008). A preliminary classification system for homeless veterans with mental illness.  Psychological Services, 5, 36-48. doi:10.1037/1541-1559.5.1.36

APA is now recommending that the DOI be included if available because this number is unique and permanent and will allow for accessing the citation through the Internet without knowing the specific database from which it was retrieved.

Citing Web Pages

Format for non-peer-reviewed web sources:

Insurance Information Institute. (2008, October).  Cellphones and driving.  Retrieved from hottopics/insurance/cellphones/

These include sources such as reports, brochures, fact sheets, press releases, and newsletter articles.  Include the date retrieved only if the date is not included in the site and the content is likely to change.

APA Style Guides

APA style guides online:

The official APA manual of style is:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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