Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

*SOCI 3020 Social Research Methods (Albertson): Empirical Research Articles?

Empirical vs. Non-Empirical Scholarly Articles Tutorial

Tutorial on strategies for discerning whether a scholarly article is EMPIRICAL or not:

POLL - Which is Empirical Research?

Here are two article records found in the Sociological Abstracts database - Which one is EMPIRICAL RESEARCH? 


The Division of Household Labor
Beth Anne Shelton, and John Daphne. Annual Review of Sociology 22 (1996): 299-322.
Abstract (summary)



Macro-Level Gender Inequality and the Division of Household Labor in 22 Countries 
Fuwa, Makiko. American Sociological Review 69 (2004): 751-767.

Abstract (summary)

While most previous studies focus on the effects of individuals' and couples' characteristics on the division of housework, this study argues that macro-level factors are equally important in the dynamics of housework distribution between spouses. Data from the 1994 International Social Survey Programme is used to examine whether macro-level gender inequality limits the effect of individual-level variables (relative resources, time availability, and gender ideology) on the division of housework in 22 industrialized countries. The results show that the equalizing effects of time availability and gender ideology are stronger for women in more egalitarian countries; women in less egalitarian countries benefit less from their individual-level assets. Additional analysis shows that other macro-level factors (economic development, female labor-force participation, gender norms, and welfare regimes) may also influence the division of housework. The results suggest that changes in individual-level factors may not be enough to achieve an equal division of housework without the reduction of macro-level gender inequality.

ARTICLE 1 is empirical.: 0 votes (0%)
ARTICLE 2 is empirical.: 1 votes (100%)
BOTH are empirical.: 0 votes (0%)
NEITHER is empirical.: 0 votes (0%)
Total Votes: 1

Primary and Secondary Data?

What is the difference between "primary" and "secondary" data?

  • Primary data is data a researcher has collected him/herself to address his/her specific research questions via empirical analysis.
  • Secondary data is existing data that was collected by researchers, and is then made available to OTHER researchers for use in addressing their own research questions - so, even though the other researchers didn't collect the data themselves, they are still using the data for their own original research, and are thus doing empirical analysis.

E-Encyclopedia of Research Design

Encyclopedia of Research Design is an online collection of entries written by scholars in the field of research design, the discipline of how to plan and conduct empirical research, including the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods.