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On Display at the Clarkston Library 2022 and Beyond: 2022

The third in a collection of Clarkston Library Displays.

February 2022 A

Uyghur Stories -- Other's Voices

"‘Do you know that I am with you?’: Uighur poetry preserves culture under attack"
The Guardian 5 Dec. 2020.

Describes the plight of Uyghur poets as China attempts to crush and destroy Uyghur culture. This article also includes several contemporary, Uyghur poems in translation. Note: The Guardian has a paywall, and this article is not available via ProQuest News and Newspapers
Eileen H. Kramer

Grose, Timothy. Negotiating Inseparability in China: The Xinjiang Class and the Dynamics of Uyghur Identity.
Hong Kong University Press, 2019.
Call # EBSCOHost eBook Collection
This is the first book-length study of graduates from the Xinjiang Class, a program that funds senior high school–aged students from Xinjiang, mostly ethnic Uyghur, to attend a four-year course in predominately Han-populated cities in eastern and coastal China. Based on longitudinal field research, Negotiating Inseparability in China: The Xinjiang Class and the Dynamics of Uyghur Identity offers a detailed picture of the multilayered identities of contemporary Uyghur youth and an assessment of the effectiveness of this program in meeting its political goals. The experiences of Xinjiang Class graduates reveal how young, educated Uyghurs strategically and selectively embrace elements of the corporate Chinese Zhonghua minzu identity in order to stretch the boundaries of a nonstate-defined Uyghur identity. Timothy Grose also argues that the impositions of Chinese Mandarin and secular Chinese Communist Party (CCP) values over ethnic minority languages and religion, and physically displacing young Uyghurs from their neighborhood and cultural environment do not lead to ethnic assimilation, as the CCP apparently expects.
EBSCOHost eBook Collection

Kuo, Lili
"Poetry, the Soul of Uighur Culture, on Verge of Extinction in Xinjiang." The Observer Dec 06, 2020.
ProQuest News and Newspapers

According to poets and researchers, Uighur poetry is now on the verge of extinction as the Chinese government detains and silences poets. Outside of China, Uighurs in the diaspora are fighting to keep the art form alive as authorities double down on their campaign to assimilate minority populations of Xinjiang into mainstream Han Chinese culture.
Kuo, Lily. "Poetry, the Soul of Uighur Culture."

Steorts, Jason Lee.
"For Parhatjan: Xinjiang Before the Cultural Genocide."
National Review, vol.73, no. 14, August 2020, p. 46-48.
Legal Source

More than a travelogue, the author takes readers back to the early aughts, a time in Xingiang when Han and Uyghur lived side by side, and Uyghur culture flourished. The author laments how the friend he met has most certainly disappeared, and how the landscape has been wiped clean.
Eileen H. Kramer

Image attribution: Bitter Winter

Model of a Tier 3 Detention Camp in Xinjiang

Image attribution: Source: Designed by Orion_Int using satellite imagery and data provided by ASPI ICPC. Ruser, Nathan. Xinjiang Data Project: Documenting Xinjiang’s Detention System.

All Seeing Eye of surveillance

Image attribution: Badiucao. Human Rights Watch 2020.

Global Reaction

Aguilera, Jasmine.
"he U.S. Admitted Zero Uyghur Refugees Last Year. Here's Why"
MSN, 29 Oct 2021.
Microsoft News.

Both the Biden and Trump Administrations repeatedly condemned China’s persecution of Uyghurs and formally declared the country’s treatment of the mostly Muslim minority group a genocide. The Trump Administration passed the Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act of 2020, imposing sanctions on individuals and entities responsible for human rights abuses against Uyghurs, and the Biden Administration recently designated Uyghurs a priority group for refugee resettlement.But all that, it turns out, has been mostly talk.The United States has admitted a grand total of zero Uyghur refugees in the past two fiscal years.
Aguilera, Jasmine. "The US Admitted Zero Uyghur Refugees Last Year."

Areddy, James T., and Michelle Hackman.
"World News: Chinese Uighurs Stuck in U.S. Immigration Limbo."
The Wall Street Journal, 29 July 2020.
ProQuest Wall Street Journal

China's treatment of Uighurs exploded into the American consciousness about two years ago, with reports that China was rounding up roughly a million Uighurs in what appeared to be concentration camps in the western region of Xinjiang.At about the same time, changes in U.S. asylum policies slowed the process for many of those claiming risk in their home countries. As a result, while the Trump administration is targeting China with various Xinjiang-related sanctions, hundreds of Uighurs like Ms. Awut are in U.S. immigration limbo with asylum bids hung up for years.
Areddy, Jame T., and Michelle Hackman. "Chinese Uighurs Stuck in U.S. Immigration Limbo."

Asat, Rayhan.
"If Uyghur Lives Matter, the Olympics should Move."
The Wall Street Journal, 17 June 2021.
ProQuest Wall Street Journal

The world seems to forget that China broke its promises related to the Beijing 2008 Olympics and is committing atrocities against the Uyghur and other Turkic communities in plain sight. The International Olympic Committee postponed last year's Summer Olympics because of Covid. Why can't it delay or move next year's games instead of holding them in a country that is locking up millions of people in camps where torture, forced sterilization, rape and starvation are the norm?
Asat, Rahan. "If Uyghur Lives Matter."

Jamestown Foundation.
Broken Rings: Xinjiang and Tibet on the Eve of the Olympics
YouTube, 2 February 2022.

A Jamestown Institute Webinar featuring information on China's "demographic engineering" in Xinjiang, that includes forced labor, internment camps, and coercive birth control.
Eileen H. Kramer

Kakutani, Yuichiro.
"Olympic Chief’s Deep Ties to Uyghur Slave Labor Revealed: A Sportswear Brand Committed to Using Slave Labor Secured Major Olympics Sponsorship Deals after Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs Ascended to the IOC’s Vice Presidency."
The Daily Beast, 7 August 2021.
ProQuest News and Newspapers

A top Olympics official who said he’s “dead serious” about human rights has allowed his sports charity to take wads of cash from a Chinese sportswear company using Xinjiang cotton made by slave laborers.
Kakutani, Yuichiro. "Olympic Chief’s Deep Ties to Uyghur Slave Labor Revealed."

McCormick, Andrew.
"America’s New Uighur Law is a World First. What Took so Long?"
The Nation
The Nation

After several years of cultural genocide, and countless Uyghur's detained in prison campus, Congress finally passed an act condemning China's human rights violations against Uyghurs.
Eileen H. Kramer

Melchior, Jillian K.
"The Moral Cost of Doing Business in China: Troublesome Findings in a New Report from the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation." The Wall Street Journal 2 February 2022.
The Wall Street Journal

The U.S. government says the Communist Party is committing genocide against Uyghurs, particularly in Xinjiang province. An advisory last summer from the State, Treasury and several other departments warned that “given the severity and extent of these abuses, businesses and individuals that do not exit supply chains, ventures, and/or investments connected to Xinjiang could run a high risk of violating U.S. law.” Note: This article is not available via library databases.
Melchior, Jillian K. "The Moral Cost of Doing Business in China."

United States Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on East Asia, the Pacific, International Cybersecurity Policy. Atrocities in Xinjiang: Where do we go from Here??Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Transnational Crime, Civilian Security, Democracy, Human Rights, and Global Women's Issues; and Subcommittee on East Asia, the Pacific and International Cybersecurity Policy of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventeenth Congress, First Session, June 10, 2021.
Government Publishing Office, 2021.

The Chinese government views high concentration of Uyghurs as a national security threat and has been implementing for years, a campaign to eliminate the Uyghur population. The tools, and the techniques, and the ideology behind this reminds me of the discredited Eugenics Movement in the United States in the nineteen teens and twenties, that was also responsible, in large measure, for the Holocaust in Europe, pre and during the Second World War.
Kane, Tim. Atrocities in Xinjiang.

A Uyghur forced laborer works in a factory

Image attribution: an archived Chinese government web site.

Surplus rural Uyghur laborers on their way to a factory somewhere.

Image attribution: Found on Zenz, Adrian. "Beyond the Camps: Beijing’s Long-Term Scheme of Coercive Labor, Poverty Alleviation and Social Control in Xinjiang" Journal of Political Risk, vol. 7. no. 12. December 2019.

Several Uyghur forced laborers sewing

Image attribution: an archived Chinese government web site.

To see past Clarkston library displays, please visit the Display Archives.

Uyghur Witness

This display exists to make a story more widely known. This display exists to put GSU Clarkston Library on the right side of history. In western China, in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, cultural and perhaps physical genocide is happening NOW. This display tells the stories of Uyghurs and other Moslem minorities, through their own voices and the voices of others. It documents scholars' work to document "re-education camps," religious suppression, and a forced birth control campaign to "optimize" Uyghur population. All of this is occurring while China hosts the 2022 Winter Olympics.

Most of the sources in this display are newspaper or magazine articles to make them readable. There are also scholarly articles, reports from NGOs, and even poetry. Also Uyghur in English can be spelled with either a "y" or an "i.". I personally choose the "y," but where other authors spell it differently, I have let them have their way. -- Eileen H. Kramer.

Map of China showing Xinjiang province.

Image attribution: md3d

Uyghurs and Xinjiang -- News and Background

Australian Strategic Policy Institute.
Xinjiang Data Project
Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2021.

The Xinjiang Data Project brings together rigorous, empirical research on the human rights situation for Uyghurs and other non-Han nationalities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in western China. It focuses on a core set of topics including mass internment camps, surveillance and emerging technologies, forced labour and supply chains, the ‘re-education’ campaign, deliberate cultural destruction and other human rights issues.
Australian Strategic Policy Institute

Deng, Chao.
"China Razed Thousands of Xinjiang Mosques in Assimilation Push, Report Says; Satellite Imagery Challenges Beijing's Assertions about Cultural Protection, Internment Camps in Remote Region." The Wall Street Journal, (Online), 25 September, 2020.
ProQuest Wall Street Journal

New research shows Chinese authorities have razed or damaged two-thirds of the mosques in China's remote northwestern region of Xinjiang, further illuminating the scope of a forced cultural-assimilation campaign targeting millions of Uighur Muslims. In a report published Friday, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute said satellite imagery showed that roughly 8,500 mosques, close to a third of the region's total, have been demolished since 2017. Another 7,500 have sustained damage, the report said.
Deng, Chao. "China Razed Thousands of Xinjiang Mosques."

Dou, Eva, and Philip Wen. "
"Admit Your Mistakes, Repent': China Shifts Campaign to Control Xinjiang's Muslims; Beijing Closes some Camps but Continues to Keep Tabs on Uighurs and Ethnic Kazakhs in Far Western Region."
The Wall Street Journal, (Online), 6 February, 2020.
ProQuest Wall Street Journal

During a recent visit to several cities and towns in the Uighur heartland of southern Xinjiang, it was clear that many of the overt security measures employed in recent years have been rolled back after months of international scrutiny and criticism from the U.S. and other Western nations. Yet other, at-times more subtle, forms of control remain in place.... Facial-recognition scans and manual and electronic ID checks are still pervasive, taking place at the entrances of residential compounds and public buildings rather than on the street. The doorways to some Uighur homes are still marked with a QR code that police can scan for information on the people living inside.
Dou, Eva, and Philip Wen. " "'Admit Your Mistakes and Repent.'"

"Poetry from the Gulag."
The Economist, vol. 441, no. 9268, 23 October 20201.
ABI Inform Collection

Details how China's cultural genocide has decimated Uyghur poetry, fiction, and music. Decries the cancellation of a musical, television, talent show called Voice of the Silk Road.
Eileen H. Kramer

Ramzy, Austin
"Secret Document Details how Chinese Evaluate Uighurs for Detention."
The New York Times, Foreign Desk, 18 February 2020.
ProQuest New York Times

A leaked spread sheet reveals the exent of China's surveillance of its Uyghur minority, and how such crimes as praying, obtaining a passport, or having children can land a Uyghur in detention.
Eileen H. Kramer

Roberts, Sean R. The War on the Uyghurs: China's Internal Campaign Against a Muslim Minority,
Princeton University Press, 2020.
Call # Ebook Central
In this explosive book, Sean Roberts reveals how China has been using the US-led global war on terror as international cover for its increasingly brutal suppression of the Uyghurs, and how the war's targeting of an undefined enemy has emboldened states around the globe to persecute ethnic minorities and severely repress domestic opposition in the name of combatting terrorism. Of the eleven million Uyghurs living in China today, more than one million are now being held in so-called reeducation camps, victims of what has become the largest program of mass detention and surveillance in the world.
Ebook Central

Ruser, Nathan and James Leibold.
Family De-planning: The Coercive Campaign to Drive Down Indigenous Birth-rates in Xinjiang,
Austratlian Strategic Policy Institute, Report no. 44, May 2021.

Beginning in April 2017, Chinese Communist Party authorities in Xinjiang launched a series of “strike-hard” campaigns against “illegal births” with the explicit aim to “reduce and stabilise fertility at a moderate level” and decrease the birth-rate in southern Xinjiang by at least 4 children per thousand people from 2016 levels...The crackdown has led to an unprecedented and precipitous drop in official birth-rates in Xinjiang
Ruser, Nathan and James Liebold. Family De-Planning.

Negotiating Inseparability. War on Uyghurs.

Image attribution: Negotiating Inseparability and War on Uyghurs both at

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Uluyol, Burhan.
"What challenges does the Uighur ethnic movement face?: China has a Long History of Discrimination but the World also has a Role to Play." The Jerusalem Post, (Online), 20 Februrary 2021.
ProQuest News and Newspapers

The Xinjiang autonomous region in China is facing the worst kind of cultural and ethnic genocide. There is a long history of dissonance between the indigenous ethnic Uighur and Chinese authorities. The Chinese government refuses to categorize Uighurs as an indigenous population and describe Uighurs as a regional minority. One among China’s 55 ethnic minorities, Uighurs are a Turkic ethnic group originating from central and eastern Asia. China is facing criticism and worldwide condemnation over its harsh treatment of Uighur Muslims.
Uluyol, Burhand. "What challenges does the Uighur ethnic movement face?"

Xiao, Eva, and Jonathan Cheng.
"World News: Beijing Seizes Millions in Uyghur Assets."
The Wall Street Journal, 25 September 2021.
ProQuest Wall Street Journal

Chinese authorities have seized and sold at auction tens of millions of dollars in assets owned by jailed Uyghur business owners amid a broad government campaign to assimilate ethnic minorities in the country's northwest Xinjiang region.Since 2019, Xinjiang courts have put at least 150 assets -- ranging from home appliances to real estate and company shares -- belonging to at least 21 people and valued at a total $84.8 million up for auction on e-commerce sites.
Xiao, Eva and Jonathan Chang. "Beijing Seizes Millions in Uyghur Assets."

Xiao, Eva.
"World News: Crackdown Hits Uyghur Entrepreneurs."
The Wall Street Journal, 14 July 2021.
ProQuest Wall Street Journal

Beijing's cultural genocide does not spare even those with wealth and position. Entrepreneurs and business people also disappear into Xinjiang's black hole of detention camps.
Eileen H. Kramer

Xu, Vicky Xiuzhong, James Leibold, and Daria Impiombato.
he Architecture of Repression: Unpacking Xinjiang’s Governance,
Australian Strategic Policy, Institute, Report no. 51, October 2021.

This project maps and analyses the governance mechanisms employed by the Chinese party-state in Xinjiang from 2014 to 2021 within the context of the region’s ongoing human rights crisis.
Xu, Vicky Xiuzhong, James Leibold, and Daria Impiombato. Source

Zenz, Adrian
Coercive Labor and Forced Displacement in Xinjiang’s Cross-Regional Labor Transfer Program,
The Jamestown Fondation, 2020.

Newly uncovered evidence from public and non-public Chinese government and academic sources indicates that labor transfers of ethnic minorities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) to other regions and other provinces are part of a state-run scheme to forcibly uproot them, assimilate them and reduce their population density.
Zenz Adrian. Coercive Labor

Zenz, Adrian
"End the Dominance of the Uyghur Ethnic Group’: An Analysis of Beijing’s Population Optimization Strategy in Southern Xinjiang."
Central Asian Survey, vol. 40, no. 3, Sept. 2021, pp. 291–312.

Beijing’s human rights violations involve not only cultural oppression but reduction in the number of Uyghur babies born via draconian birth control policies and transferring Han Chinese to Xinjiang.
Zenz, Adrian. "'End the Dominance of the Uyghur Ethnic Group.’"

Zenz, Adrien
"'Thoroughly Reforming Them towards a Healthy Heart Attitude’: China’s Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang."
Central Asian Survey, vol. 38, no. 1, Mar. 2019, pp. 102–28.

Since spring 2017, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China has witnessed the emergence of an unprecedented re- education campaign. According to media and informant reports, untold thousands of Uyghurs and other Muslims have been and are being detained in clandestine political re-education facilities, with major implications for society, local economies and ethnic relations. Considering that the Chinese state is currently denying the very existence of these facilities, this paper investigates publicly available evidence from official sources, including government websites, media reports and other Chinese internet sources.
Zenz, Adrian. "'Thoroughly Reforming Them towards a Healthy Heart Attitude.'"

Zenz, Andrian and James Leibold.
"Securitizing Xinjiang: Police Recruitment, Informal Policing and Ethnic Minority Co-optation."
The China Quarterly, vol. 242, 12 July 2019, pp. 342-348.

China's Xinjiang region has witnessed an unprecedented build-up of what we describe as a multi-tiered police force, turning it into one of the most heavily policed regions in the world. This article investigates the securitization of Xinjiang through an analysis of official police recruitment documents. Informal police jobs, which represent the backbone of recent recruitment drives, have historically carried inferior pay levels. Yet, advertised assistant police positions in Xinjiang now offer high salaries despite low educational requirements, thereby attracting lesser-educated applicants, many of whom are ethnic minorities. Besides co-opting Uyghurs into policing their own people, the resulting employment is in itself a significant stability maintenance strategy.
Zenz, Andrian and James Leibold. "Securitizing Xinjiang."

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Uyghurs being sent to do forced labor line up outside a factory.

Image attribution: an archived Chinese web site.

Uyghur Stories -- Uyghur Voices

Flynn, Meagan.
"Their Uyghur Relatives are Imprisoned in China. From Virginia, They Plead for Help.: Northern Virginia’s Large Uyghur diaspora has Drawn Attention from Congress and the White House."
The Washington Post, 19 March 2021.
ProQuest News and Newspapers

Family members in Northern Virginia — one of the largest diasporas of Uyghurs in the United States — are largely powerless to help them [their relatives in the detention camps in Xinjiang]. Speaking out, even from here, can carry grave risks of reprisal by China, which is why many choose to stay silent. But some, like Kalbinur, have taken the risk, bringing their stories to the highest echelons of government.
Flynn, Meagan. "Their Uyghur Relatives are Imprisoned in China."

Freeman, Joshua L.
Princeton Society of Fellows in the Liberal Arts, October 2021.

Uyghur poetry can be hard to find, but not at this site where Joshua L. Freeman, a leading translator of Uyghur verse offers dozens of links to Uyghur poems he has translated into English.
Eileen H. Kramer

Izgil, Tamir Hamut.
"One by One, Each of my Friends was Sent to the Camps."
The Atlantic, 14 July 2021.

Tahir Hamut Izgil arrived with his family in the United States in 2017, fleeing the Chinese government’s merciless persecution of his people. Tahir’s escape not only spared him near-certain internment in the camps that have swallowed more than 1 million Uyghurs; it also allowed him to share with the world his experience of the calamity engulfing his homeland.
Freeman, Joshua L. "One by One."

Kahn, Aysha.
"Uighurs Reflect on 2009 Violence that set off Chinese Crackdown: Unrest in the City of Urumqi and the Chinese Government’s Aggressive Response Marked a Turning Point in China’s Brutal Crackdown Against the Uighurs." The Washington Post, 10 July 2020.
ProQuest News and Newspapers

A detailed retelling of recent Uyghur history and Uyghur – Han relations that led to the current crackdown in Xinjiang.
Eileen H. Kramer

Ramzy, Austin.
"‘They have my Sister’: As Uyghurs Speak out, China Targets their Families." The New York Times, 27 July 2021.
ProQuest New York Times

She was a gifted agricultural scientist educated at prestigious universities in Shanghai and Tokyo. She said she wanted to help farmers in poor areas, like her hometown in Xinjiang, in western China. But because of her uncle’s activism for China’s oppressed Muslim Uyghurs, her family and friends said, the Chinese state made her a security target. At first they took away her father. Then they pressed her to return home from Japan. Last year, at age 30, Mihriay Erkin, the scientist, died in Xinjiang, under mysterious circumstances.
Ramzy, Austin. "'They have my Sister.’"

Uyghurs receiving de-extremism training.

Image attribution: Wikimedia.

Subi, Mamat Y.
"Decades of Service to China’s Government Didn’t Save my Uyghur Dad from Prison: To Beijing, Lloyal Uyghur Citizens are 'Two-faced.'"
The Washington Post, 16 April 2021.
ProQuest News and Newspapers

In 2017, my family's nightmare began: Over four decades, my father, Mamat Abdullah, had served China in many posts, including in the 1990s as the mayor of Korla, the second-largest city in the Xinjiang region. He helped open up trade with other parts of China for Korla's agricultural products, including its famous pears. His last government position was as chief of the regional forestry bureau. He was held in high esteem in Urumqi, the regional capital... But right before they were supposed to travel, my father... had joined the growing number of Uyghurs, estimated at more than 1 million, held in prisons and concentration camps for no reason other than being Uyghur.
Subi, Mamat Y. "Decades of Service to China’s Government Didn’t Save my Uyghur Dad from Prison."

Tobin, Grace.
"Uyghur Australian Woman Speaks out as her Husband is Sentenced to 25 Years in a Chinese Jail." Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 20 April 2021.
ProQuest News and Newspapers

Since 2017, China has rounded up, detained & indoctrinated more than one million Uyghurs, Turkish-speaking Muslims in detention camps.. Mehray Mezensof knows only one truth - her husband, Mirzat Taher, is locked up in China because he's Uyghur.he 26-year-old has never spoken publicly before fearing it would make an already perilous situation even more dangerous for him but shocking news out of China two weeks ago, pushed her to breaking point.
Tobin, Grace. "Uyghur Australian Woman Speaks Out."

Topol, Sarah A.
"Her Uighur Parents Were Model Chinese Citizens. It Didn’t Matter."
The New York Times, [Feature], 29 January 2020.
ProQuest New York Times

When Zulhumar Isaac’s parents disappeared amid a wave of detentions of ethnic minorities, she had to play a perilous game with the state to get them back.
Topol, Sarah A. "Her Uighur Parents Were Model Chinese Citizens. It Didn’t Matter."

Wong, Edward.
"Sister Fights to Free Uighur Jailed in China After he Visited U.S." New York Times, Foreign Desk, 10 May 2020
ProQuest New York Times

When Ekpar Assat, a Uyghur and graduate of the United States State Department's Leadership Program returned to his homeland, he disappeared down a black hole of the Chinese government's detention camps in Xinjiang province. Now his sister, Rayhan, pleads with government officials to win his release. This article also details China's human rights abuses against Uyghurs.
Eileen H. Kramer

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Forced Labor

Congresional-Executive Commission on China. Global Supply Chains, Forced Labor, and the Xinjiang Autonomous Region : Roundtable before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, One Hundred Sixteenth Congress, Second Session, March 11, 2020.
US Government Printing Office, 2021.

We know that many U.S., international, and Chinese companies are complicit in the exploitation of forced labor involving Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities. Audits of supply chains are simply not possible because forced labor is so pervasive within the regional economy. Workers cannot speak freely and honestly about working conditions, given heavy surveillance and intimidation, and govern- ment officials face strong incentives to conceal the use of govern- ment-sanctioned forced labor.
McGovern, Jim. Global Supply Chains.

Dou, Eva, and Chao Deng
"Western Companies Get Tangled in China's Muslim Clampdown; Kraft Heinz, Adidas and Gap are among the Companies Whose Supply Chains Run through Xinjiang.
The Wall Street Journal, (Online), 16 May 2019. ProQuest Wall Street Journal

Western companies, including brand name apparel makers and food companies, have become entangled in China's campaign to forcibly assimilate its Muslim population. Adidas AG, Hennes & Mauritz AB, Kraft Heinz Co., Coca-Cola Co. and Gap Inc. are among those at the end of the long, often opaque supply chains that travel through China's northwest region of Xinjiang. Residents there are routinely forced into training programs that feed workers to area factories, according to locals, official notices and state media.
Dou, Eva and Chao Dang "Western Companies Get Tangled in China's Muslim Clampdown."

Lin, Liza.
"Chinese Suppliers Now Shun Uyghur Workers."
The Wall Street Journal, 21 July 2021.
ProQuest Wall Street Journal

Chinese factories that supply Apple Inc., Nike Inc., and make other products sold in the U.S. are shunning workers from Xinjiang, as Western countries increase scrutiny of forced labor from the remote northwestern region where Beijing has been accused of committing genocide against local ethnic minorities.
Lin, Liza. "Chinese Suppliers Now Shun Uyghur Workers."

"The Quiet Americans"
The Economist, vol. 442, no. 9277, Jan. 2022
ABI Inform Collection

The Uyghur Forced Labour Prevention Act bans imports made with forced Uyghur labor in Xinjiang, China. Carrying this act out in practice can be difficult, due to tangled supply chains through which Xinjiang's raw materials flow into finished goods. American companies, however, are quietly finding ways to cut Xinjiang imports out without taking a blatantly anti-Chinese stance.
Eileen H. Kramer

Swanson, Ana, Catie Edmondson, and Edward Wong.
"U.S. Effort to Combat Forced Labor Targets Corporate China Ties."
The New York Times, 23 December 2021.
ProQuest New York Times

A far-reaching bill aimed at barring products made with forced labor in China became law after President Joe Biden signed the bill Thursday. But the next four months — during which the Biden administration will convene hearings to investigate how pervasive forced labor is and what to do about it — will be crucial in determining how far the legislation goes in altering the behavior of companies that source products from China.
Swanson, Ana, Catie Edmondson, and Edward Wong. "U.S. Effort to Combat Forced Labor."

United States Bureau of International Labor Affairs. Against Their Will: the Situation in Xinjiang: Forced Labor in Xinjiang.
Bureau of Labor Affairs, 2021.

Forced labor (slavery) is very much a part of China's oppression of its Uyghurs and other Moslem minorities. Workers live in prison style dormitories, are often sent far from home, and are escorted/guarded by armed police. This report details the methods and extent of Uuyghur forced labor, and what companies can do to avoid goods made this way.
Eileen H. Kramer

Xu, Vicky Xiuzhong, et. al.
Uyghurs for Sale.
Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 2020.

The Chinese government not only detains Uyghurs in "re-education camps," but also ships them all over the country to supply cheap, forced labor in factories, many of which ship parts that enter the global supply chain. Forced labor often includes overtime, indoctrination, and being locked in prison like dormitories. Chances are good, that if you own any electronics made in China, they may be he product of forced Uyghur labor.
Eileen H. Kramer

The Id Qua Mosque which now may be demolished.

Image attribution: Steorts, Jason Lee. "For Parhatjan." National Review, vol. 73, no. 14, Aug. 2021, pp. 46–48.

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