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Michael Dimock - Pew Research Center (1/10/2017) The election of the nation’s first black president raised hopes that race relations in the U.S. would improve, especially among black voters. But by 2016, following a spate of high-profile deaths of black Americans during encounters with police and protests by the Black Lives Matter movement and other groups, many Americans – especially blacks – described race relations as generally bad.
Jerry Large - BlackPast (1/15/2009) Seattle Times columnist Jerry Large provides his perspective on the importance of the Obama victory for the Presidency on Nov. 4, 2008 and the way it forever changed the United States.
The "Unforeseen" 2016 Election Win of Donald Trump
Ingrid Harvold Kvangraven and Surbi Kesar - Institute of New Economic Thinking (8/3/2020) In the wake of the killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis in the summer of 2020 and the protests that followed, economists, as others, have scrutinized their own biases and racism within the profession itself. The economics profession has long been criticized for often ignoring the structural basis of racism or, in general, any form of identity-based discrimination. Is there something about the way economics is taught that makes it difficult for economists to identify and address structural racism? A survey of around 500 economists that we ran earlier this year would suggest so.
Peter Coy - Bloomsberg Business Week (7/18/2016) The article discusses changes within the U.S. Republican and Democratic parties, specifically the political identity of Republicans and Democrats concerning the 2016 presidential elections. Topics include skepticism of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump's position on free trade, immigration, and tax cuts, the Republican party's inability to connect with people's problems and offer a solution, and the frustration of Republicans and Democrats in their own parties.
The emerging New Negro identity, which prized unflinching resistance to second-class citizenship inspired veterans and their fellow black citizens. In city after city - Washington, DC; Chicago; Charleston; and elsewhere - black men and women took up arms to repel mobs that used lynching, assaults, and other forms of violence to protect white supremacy; yet, authorities blamed blacks for the violence, leading to mass arrests and misleading news coverage. Refusing to yield, African Americans sought accuracy and fairness in the courts of public opinion and the law.
Derek Alderman and Joshua F. J. Inwood - The Conversation (2/23/2021) How can maps fight racism and inequality? The work of the Black Panther Party, a 1960s- and 1970s-era Black political group featured in a new movie and a documentary, helps illustrate how cartography – the practice of making and using maps – can illuminate injustice.
The Racial Violence Archive (RVA) documents historical racial violence to support research, teaching, and remedial efforts related to these histories and legacies today. It displays incomplete and ongoing counts of race-related political violence for select counties in the United States, focusing on anti-Black violence in the period 1870 to 1970 within states where RVA data collection has progressed to date.
National Archives (n.d.) The Red Summer was a pattern of white-on-black violence that occurred in 1919 throughout the United States. The post World War I period was marked by a spike in racial violence, much of it directed toward African American veterans returning from Europe, where they were often treated much better there than by white Americans, despite their brave service to the country.
The AHA has issued a statement urging a reckoning with the United States' deplorable record of violence against African Americans, a record that stretches back centuries. The killing of George Floyd at the hands of Minneapolis police officers stands within this sordid national tradition of racist violence. It is past time for Americans to confront our nation's past, using insights from history to inform our actions as we work to create a more just society.
Ayah Nuriddi, et al. - The Lancet (10/3/2020) The killing of Eric Garner in 2014 at the hands of the New York Police Department and the footage that circulated of his death after he was put in a chokehold elevated the phrase “I can't breathe” to a protest chant for those in the fight against structural racism worldwide. Its repetition by George Floyd in Minneapolis, MN, USA, in 2020 and by others in anti-racism protests amid the COVID-19 pandemic has deepened the salience of these words. While much public health research has shown that racism is a fundamental determinant of health outcomes and disparities, racist policy and practice have also been integral to the historical formation of the medical academy in the USA.
Khiara M. Bridges - American Bar Association's Human Rights Magazine (n.d.) Why are black people sicker, and why do they die earlier, than other racial groups? Many factors likely contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality among black people. It is undeniable, though, that one of those factors is the care that they receive from their providers. Black people simply are not receiving the same quality of health care that their white counterparts receive, and this second-rate health care is shortening their lives.
Erika Ziller & Andrew Coburn - American Bar Association's Human Rights Magazine (n.d.) Growing evidence indicates that a significant rural-urban disparity in life expectancy exists in the United States, driven largely by urban longevity gains that have not been shared among those living in rural places. A recent study of the five leading causes of death in the United States (heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory disease, and stroke) found that the age-adjusted death rate for each was higher among rural residents. Perhaps more disturbingly, the rate of potentially excess deaths in rural communities was also consistently higher.
Ruqaiijah Yearby - American Bar Association's Human Rights Magazine (n.d.) In 2010, at the end of the great recession that disproportionately harmed racial minorities and women, the federal government recognized that health disparities are caused by the social determinants of health (SDOH) (Figure 1), which are outside an individual’s control. In fact, research shows that SDOH account for 80 to 90 percent of health factors that contribute to health outcomes. One of the five SDOH is economic stability (employment and wages), which accounts for 40 percent of the health factors that contribute to health outcomes.
The At-a-glance Table provides a snapshot of key health indicators from Health, United States, 2019. These key health indicators cover the areas of mortality, morbidity, health risk factors, health care utilization and access, health care resources, and health care expenditures.
Todd L. Savitt - The Journal of Southern History (Aug 1982) "Abundance of materials in the Southern medical journals reveals that slaves had a fairly significant role in medical education and in experimental and radical medical and surgical practice of the antebellum South"
Mary Pflum - NBC News (4/8/2021) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Thursday called racism a “serious threat” to public health, becoming the latest, and largest, U.S.-based health agency to single out racism as having a “profound and negative impact on communities of color” and contributing to disproportionate mortality rates among people of color.