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Resources for Pillar Five: Occupational Hierarchy
Secret and Sacred by
This set of diaries (1841-1864) brings to light the journal notations of James Henry Hammond, a prominent South Carolina planter and slaveholder. They reveal a man whose fortune and intellect combined to make him an important leader, but whose flaws kept him from true greatness.
Jack Johnson and The Great White Hope
Lerone Bennett, Jr. - Ebony Magazine (Feb 2005) Article features Jack Johnson, the first African-American heavyweight boxing champion. Details of the July 4, 1910 boxing match between Johnson and Jim Jeffries in Reno, Nevada; Effect of Johnson's triumph in the match on racial discrimination against African Americans; Cause of the death of Johnson.
Factsheet: U.S. occupational segregation by race, ethnicity, and gender
Kate Bahn and Carmen Sanchez Cumming - Washington Center for Equitable Growth (7/1/2020)
Maintaining hierarchies in predominantly white organizations: a theory of racial tasks
Adia Harvey Wingfield and Renee Skeete Alston (GSU) - American Behavioral Scientist (Feb 2014) Predominantly White workplaces are environments in which Whiteness is privileged in numerous ways. Studies show workers of color doing self-presentation, emotion work, and other forms of social interaction intended to help ease the difficulties associated with being in the minority. In addition to the expectation that they smooth interactions with White peers, workers of color are assigned positions and tasks which reinforce that racial status quo. In this theoretical article, we attempt to place these various processes under an umbrella term we define as “racial tasks.” We examine the ideological, interactional, and physical labor racial minorities perform in mostly White work settings, and the ways these racial tasks vary at different levels of the organizational structure. We consider the ways that the tactics and requirements associated with racial tasks maintain the racial hierarchy of predominantly White organizations and conclude by examining the implications of this work for racial minorities.
Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey
US Bureau of Labor Statistics (1/22/2021) Employed persons (16 years and over) by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Hollywood, Separate and Unequal
Manohla Dargis and A.O. Scott - New York Times (9/16/2019)
Sources Discussed In Text
Black Workers Remember (eBook)(2000) by
The labor of black workers has been crucial to economic development in the United States. Yet because of racism and segregation, their contribution remains largely unknown. Spanning the 1930s to the present, Black Workers Remember provides striking firsthand accounts of the experiences of black southerners living under segregation in Memphis, Tennessee. These oral histories comprise a unique primary source and provide a new way of understanding the black labor experience during the industrial era. A rich collection reflecting many tragic dimensions of America's racial history while drawing new attention to the role of workers and poor people in African American and American history.