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PBS (2004) Documents the history of American slavery from its beginnings in the British colonies through the years of post-Civil War Reconstruction. It looks at slavery as an integral part of a developing nation, challenging the long held notion that slavery was exclusively a Southern enterprise. Offers new perspectives on the slave experience and testifies to the active role that Africans and African Americans took in surviving their bondage and shaping their own lives.
James Allen - Without Sanctuary (2018) Searching through America's past for the last 25 years, collector James Allen uncovered an extraordinary visual legacy: photographs and postcards taken as souvenirs at lynchings throughout America.
National Museum of African American History & Culture (n.d.) The term “race,” used infrequently before the 1500s, was used to identify groups of people with a kinship or group connection. The modern-day use of the term “race” is a human invention.
Aliya Saperstein - Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality (2017) Discusses whether or not race is "fixed" by using data to suggest that race is "flexible". Used 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Stephen Smith, Kate Ellis, and Sasha Aslanian - American Public Media (n.d.) For much of the 20th Century, African Americans in the South were barred from the voting booth, sent to the back of the bus, and walled off from many of the rights they deserved as American citizens. Until well into the 1960s, segregation was legal. The system was called Jim Crow. In this documentary, Americans—black and white—remember life in the Jim Crow times.
Understanding Jim Crow introduces readers to the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, a collection of more than 10,000 contemptible collectibles that are used to engage visitors in intense and intelligent discussions about race, race relations and racism.
NBC News Learn (2020) After the Emancipation Proclamation, blacks filled local and national offices, but white southerners were determined to pass new state laws to curtail this progress This legislation is often referred to as Jim Crow laws.
Dismantling Racism Works website (2021) Robust discussion including definition of racism using critical race theory, discussion of systemic/structural racism, expressions of racism, and how oppression works. includes supplemental video content from outside sources.
U.S. National Holocaust Museum(n.d.) A list of works that explore race and society in Nazi Germany and the Jim Crow South, including works that focus on one context specifically, but may be helpful in providing background information or contextualizing other regional studies.
In 1991 in lower Manhattan, a team of construction workers made an astonishing discovery - the remains of an eighteenth-century "Negro Burial Ground." Closed in 1790 the site turned out to be the largest such find in North America and contained the remains of as many as 20,000 African Americans. The graves revealed an aspect of American history long hidden: the vast number of enslaved blacks who labored to create our nation's largest city. This book lays bare this history of African Americans in New York City, starting with the arrival of the first slaves in 1626, moving through the turbulent years before emancipation in 1827, and culminating in one of the most terrifying displays of racism in U.S. history, the New York City Draft Riots of 1863.
Science Daily - Cell Press (10/20/2016) Now, two studies show that those differences in disease susceptibility can be traced in large part to differences at the genetic level directing the way the immune systems of people with European and African ancestry are put together.
Michael Price - Science Magazine (11/15/2016) A new study suggests that infectious diseases brought by Europeans, from smallpox to measles, have molded the immune systems of today’s indigenous Americans, down to the genetic level.
James Baldwin - The New Yorker (12/3/2018) Reprint of Nov 1962 article The author discusses the life of African American boys as he was growing up, his role as a preacher, and his view of white-African American relations.
Shannon Luders-Manual - JSTOR Daily (5/4/2017) In July 1863, over a thousand Irish dockworkers rioted against the Civil War draft in New York City in a four-day upheaval, targeting black workers and citizens.
National Park Service (2020) In 1996 the Selma-to-Montgomery National Historic Trail was created by Congress under the National Trails System Act of 1968. Like other historic trails covered in the legislation, the Alabama trail is an original route of national significance in American history.
Raj Bhopal - BMJ (12/22/2007) Raj Bhopal re-examines the role of perhaps the most important contributor to the scientific concept of race, Blumenbach, whose insights and errors provide important lessons for us today.
Jennifer K. Wagner et al - American Journal of Physical Anthropology (Feb 2017) Controversies over race conceptualizations have been ongoing for centuries and have been shaped, in part, by anthropologists.
Diane Pien - BlackPast (8/17/2018) Educated youth from the slums of Mumbai, India started the Dalit Panther Movement (DPM) in June 1972, inspired by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar and the U.S. Black Panthers. Dalits (“downtrodden”) are the lowest “untouchable” caste in Hinduism. Hinduism views Dalits as sinners in their prior lives who can only redeem themselves by being good servants of the high castes.
Shoba Sharad Rajgopal - South Asian Popular Culture (March 2021)
India’s struggle for caste justice has been likened by many to the struggle for racial justice in the United States. Small wonder then, that the activists who spearheaded the movement for caste justice were inspired by the most famous of the activists in the United States, the Black Panthers of the Black Power Movement of the 1960s and 70s. One of my most memorable encounters from my newsroom days in India in the early 1990s was with Namdeo Dhasal, one of the Dalit activists who had founded the Dalit Panthers movement. This essay draws on that experience, as also some others with the Dalit movement and Dalit leaders in India and links their struggle for social justice with that of African Americans, from the Harlem Renaissance era to the present.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission/EEOC (n.d.) - An inexhaustive list of significant EEOC private or federal sector cases from 2003 to present. These cases illustrate some of the common, novel, systemic and emerging issues in the realm of race and color discrimination.
Tejas Harad - Feminism India (5/18/2016) A person’s caste identity is inherent in their surnames (most times, but not always). The corollary of this is that a person’s caste can be discerned by looking at their surnames. This is more true for Brahmins than others.
Dr. Howard Markel - PBS NewsHour (2/16/2018) Some consider eugenics to be merely the weird, step-uncle of modern, scientifically-grounded genetics. Yet this bit of history reminds us to constantly evaluate and test our theories for evidence of racism and prejudice before implementing them and harming the innocent.
Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (1740) In this open letter to the inhabitants of Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas, George Whitefield criticizes the slave owners for their mistreatment of slaves within those colonies.
Frank W. Sweet - Encyclopedia of Arkansas (2/1/2019) This law made interracial “cohabitation” a felony, and it defined as “Negro” anyone “who has…any negro blood whatever,” thus relegating to second-class citizenship anyone accused of having any African ancestry. Although the law had features unique to Arkansas, it largely reflected nationwide trends.