Empirical vs. Non-Empirical Scholarly Articles Tutorial
Tutorial on strategies for discerning whether a scholarly article is EMPIRICAL or not:
POLL - Which is Empirical Research?
Here are two article records found in the Sociological Abstracts database - Which one is EMPIRICAL RESEARCH?
The Division of Household Labor
Beth Anne Shelton, and John Daphne.Annual Review of Sociology 22 (1996): 299-322.
In this chapter we review research on the division of household labor and its consequences. The review summarizes research focused on issues of measurement, including research on methods of gathering data on housework time and time use in general and discussions of various ways to operationalize the division of household labor. Some attention is paid to historical and theoretical work on housework and women's responsibility for it in particular, followed by a more detailed discussion of current empirical approaches to explaining the division of household labor as well as criticisms of these approaches. Finally, we review research that examines the consequences of the division of household labor, focusing on those studies that examine its impact on labor force participation and wages, marital and family satisfaction, psychological well-being, and perceptions of fairness.
Macro-Level Gender Inequality and the Division of Household Labor in 22 Countries
Fuwa, Makiko. American Sociological Review 69 (2004): 751-767.
While most previous studies focus on the effects of individuals' and couples' characteristics on the division of housework, this study argues that macro-level factors are equally important in the dynamics of housework distribution between spouses. Data from the 1994 International Social Survey Programme is used to examine whether macro-level gender inequality limits the effect of individual-level variables (relative resources, time availability, and gender ideology) on the division of housework in 22 industrialized countries. The results show that the equalizing effects of time availability and gender ideology are stronger for women in more egalitarian countries; women in less egalitarian countries benefit less from their individual-level assets. Additional analysis shows that other macro-level factors (economic development, female labor-force participation, gender norms, and welfare regimes) may also influence the division of housework. The results suggest that changes in individual-level factors may not be enough to achieve an equal division of housework without the reduction of macro-level gender inequality.
ARTICLE 1 is an empirical research article: 3 votes (7.14%)
ARTICLE 2 is an empirical research article: 34 votes (80.95%)
BOTH are empirical research articles: 4 votes (9.52%)
NEITHER are empirical research articles: 1 votes (2.38%)
What is the difference between "primary" and "secondary" data?
Primary data is data a researcher has collected him/herself to address his/her specific research questions via empirical analysis.
Secondary data is existing data that was collected by researchers, and is then made available to OTHER researchers for use in addressing their own research questions - so, even though the other researchers didn't collect the data themselves, they are still using the data for their own original research, and are thus doing empirical analysis.