Before writing your paper check with your instructor to determine if they either Endnotes or Footnotes.Also check to see their preference for the two different Chicago style types of reference styles: the Author-Date System and the Documentary-Note (or Humanities) Style.
Footnotes are located at the bottom, or "foot," of a page.
Endnotes are located the end of the paper or chapter.
Depending on the preference of your instructor, you may include, in the , a full citation or a shortened citation.
Full Citation - Author first name, last name, Title of Book (place: publisher), date, page range.
Shortened Citation - Author last name, Abbreviated Book Title, page range.
NOTE: Shortened citations can be used (1) in a work with no bibliography when referencing a source that has already been referenced in full in another citation or (2) in a work that requires a bibliography for all notes.
The TOP line of the footnote/endnote is indented and subsequent lines are flush left (a hanging indent).
1. Jenny L. Presnell. The Information-Literate Historian: A Guide to Research for History Students (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 98. (Full Citation)
2. Presnell, The Information-Literature Historian, 105. (Shortened Citation)
Here are some commonly used reference citation examples. If you cannot find an example that applies to your source, a librarian is available to help via chat, in-person, or the phone.
Author last name, first name. Title of Book. Location:Publisher, Copyright date.
Note - Terence R. Mitchell, People in Organizations: An Introduction to Organizational Behavior (New York: McGraw Hill, 1987), 23-25.
Bibliography - Mitchell, Terence R. People in Organizations: An Introduction to Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-ill, 1987.
Note - Daniel D. Wheeler, and Irving L. Janis, A Practical Guide for Making Decisions (New York: The Free Press, 1980), 81.
Bibliography - Wheeler, Daniel D. and Irving L. Janis. A Practical Guide for Making Decisions. New York: The Free Press, 1980.
Note - Ori Z. Soltes, ed., Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages (London: Philip Wilson, 1999), 280.
Bibliography - Soltes, Ori Z., ed. Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson, 1999.
Book Chapter (Textbook or Anthology)
Note - 1. Maureen W. Lovett, Roderick W. Barron and Nancy J. Benson. "Effective Remediation of Word Identification and Decoding Difficulties in School-Age Children with Reading Disabilities," chap. 17 in Handbook of Learning Disabilities, eds. H. Lee Swanson, Karen R. Harris and Steve Graham. (New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 2003), 273.
Bibliography - Handbook of Learning Disabilities,
Note - Author(s), "Article Title," Journal Title volume, issue (Date): Page number(s), DOI or URL
Bibliography - Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title volume, issue (Date): page number(s). (Date accessed.) DOI or URL.
Note - Emily Chao, "Dangerous Work: Women in Traffic," Modern China 28 no. 4 (October 2002): 73, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3181348 (accessed June 14, 2008).
Bibliography - Chao, Emily. "Dangerous Work: Women in Traffic." Modern China 28 no. 4 (October 2002): 71-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3181348 (accessed June 14, 2008).
Note - Author(s), "Article Title," Newspaper or Magazine Title, date, URL or DOI or Access database
Bibliography - Author last name, first name. "Article Title." Newspaper or Magazine Title, date. (Access date.) URL or DOI or Access database
Note - James Hibberd, "Leaving Reality Behind," Time, November 7, 2009, Access MasterFile.
Bibliography - Hibberd, James. "Leaving Reality Behind." Time, November 7, 2009. Access April 4, 2016. Access MasterFile
Note - Author/Creator, "Webpage Title," Website Title or Owner, URL, (access date.)
Bibliography - Author/Creator (inverted). "Title of Webpage." Website Title or Owner. Access date. URL.
Note - Cade Metz, "Here's How Google Makes Sure It (Almot) Never Goes Down," Wired, http://www.wired.com/2016/04/google-ensures-services-almost-never-go/, (April 13, 2016)
Bibliography - Metz, Cade. "Here's How Google Makes Sure It (Almot) Never Goes Down." Wired. Accessed April 13, 2016. http://www.wired.com/2016/04/google-ensures-services-almost-never-go/