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Georgia Government Documentation Project: Q

A guide to the Georgia Government Documentation Project oral history collection.

Series Q. Georgia Legal Services

Series Q. Georgia Legal Services

Interviews by Cliff Kuhn

This series of interviews was conducted by Georgia Government Documentation Director Clifford Kuhn in conjunction with Georgia Legal Services Program commemorating twenty years of legal service work in Georgia.

For Availability Information, see the Finding Aid.

Series Q Oral Histories

Askew, Hulett H. "Bucky" (P2002-08)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
July 22, 2002
113 pp.

Hulett H. "Bucky" Askew (b. 1942) served on the Board of Directors of the Legal Services Corporation and is the Director of Admissions of the Office of Bar Admissions, Supreme Court of Georgia. Askew has worked with Legal Aid since attending law school at Emory University.

Among topics discussed: Trajectory that led Askew into Legal Services; native Atlanta; undergraduate education at University of North Carolina in 1960; then attended Emory University Law School in 1964; role of Emory Dean Ben Johnson; attempts to integrate Emory University; Atlanta Legal Aid Society and Nancy Cheves; pro bono requirements at Emory; work for law firm in Atlanta; Askew and roommate's clerkship with Griffin Bell; Tom Bryant, Director of OEO Health Affairs Division, and relief for the poor; Askew's work with Health Affairs; election of Richard Nixon; Terry Lindsner as OEO Legal Services director; Donald Rumsfeld appointed OEO director by Nixon and Dick Cheney as special assistant; Nixon's instructions to shut Legal Aid down; Mickey Cantor; role of Dan Bradley, regional director for OEO Legal Services in South; Bill Ide; Bradley and Ide's attempt to start Legal Aid in Georgia; Askew's interview at Capitol Hill with Fletcher Thompson's administrative assistant; Askew's move back to Atlanta to work with OEO in 1971-1975; Lindsner and Bradley fired; Bradley transferred to San Francisco, Askew appointed Regional Director of OEO Legal Services in Atlanta, 1975-1978; Askew as Deputy Director of Field Division of Legal Services Corporation (LSC), 1978-1982; Donald Bogard hired as LSC president; Askew as Civil Director of National Legal Aid and Defenders Association (NLADA); appointed to Board of Directors of LSC by Bill Clinton in 1994; black law students at Emory, Marvin Arrington and Clarence Cooper; Askew's classmates: Betsey Neely, Bill Brennan, and Tillie Kidd Fowler; Emory Community Law Center and Atlanta Legal Aid Society; Michael Padnos; Maynard Jackson; Lucy McGough; Colquitt Meacham; role of McGough; Bradley early life: youth in Georgia Baptist Children's Home in Hapeville, Mercer University Law School student; Bradley's relationship with Joe Hendricks; role of Bradley in integration of Mercer University; Reginald Heber Smith Fellowship awarded to Bradley; studied at University of Pennsylvania and placed in South Florida Migrant Legal Services with Mickey Cantor; Tom Ehrlich; Ronald Reagan's anti-Legal Service attitude; Bradley's death from AIDS in 1988; Bradley's interaction with North Carolina governor Robert Walter Scott; early funding for Georgia Indigent Legal Services (GILS) and Bradley; Phil Heiner, Ben Shapiro, Bill Ide, and GILS's creation in 1970; Saturday Lawyers Program; OEO in Savannah, Macon, and Columbus; study of Young Lawyers Section showing need for Legal Aid; operation of GILS through the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW); Lester Maddox and the granting of funds to GILS; State Bar of Georgia and control of GILS; Gus Cleveland; Alf Corbett and OEO Legal Services in Washington, D.C.; Jimmy Carter; creation of Georgia Legal Services; Georgia Legal Services funding and growth; funding from OEO; Younger Lawyers; first director of GILS, Betty Kehrer; leadership abilities of Kehrer; second GILS director Greg Dellaire from Seattle Legal Services Program; Dellaire's management skills and national reputation, aggressive vision for GILS; lawsuit against Steve Gottlieb by Joe Bergen of Savannah; Askew's involvement in Savannah lawsuit. Implications for Legal Services of Savannah lawsuit; role of Bradley and Dellaire in suit; transfer of GILS from OEO; appointment of Howard Phillips by Nixon as Director of OEO; Phillips as critic of Legal Services; termination of OEO staff; Phillips removed from office by federal court; Al Arnett; Ash Commission and creation of LSC; vetoes by Nixon; restrictions placed on LSC; Leonard Garment; Nixon's resignation; appointment of first LSC board by Gerald Ford; LSC transition team, Lou Oberdorfer and David Tatel; Askew's role in transfer; crisis in Georgia Legal Services over funding by Georgia General Assembly; changes in Askew's responsibilities in Georgia Legal Services; OEO funding in the South; Legal Aid in Mississippi; Askew's staff: Michael Terry, Clint Lyons, Betsey Neely, Guy Lescault; Legal Services Corporation of Alabama; Glen Stoffel of Chattanooga; creation of thirteen new Legal Service programs in the South; Georgia Legal Services' growth and national recognition; use of paralegals; VISTA program; opposition to Legal Services by state bars; Black English law suit; role of non-lawyers Aaron Henry and Harry Bowie in Mississippi, public responsibility; Martha Bergmark and public interest law firm in Hattiesburg, Mississippi; goal to have Legal Aid funded in every county in United States; Golden Years of late 1970s; Jim Parham and Herschel Saucier, support for Legal Services; Parham's move to Washington with Carter administration; organization of Clients Council; origins notions of role of government in Legal Services; NAACP Legal Defense Fund as a model for Legal Services; development of theories of Daniel Patrick Moynihan; OEO Act; CAP agencies and Bill Allison; Michael Padnos; issue over core values; promises to poor; Donald Hollowell; Voting Rights Project; Jean and Edgar Cahn; Fred Gray's appointment to the State Bar of Alabama; Gray's book Bus Ride to Justice; Morris Dees against Gray; crossover from Carter to Reagan administration; Ed Meese; Reagan's problems with California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. (CRLA); goal of Meese to destroy CRLA; Frank Carlucci; board of LSC chaired by Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York Times and Howell Raines; Human Rights Campaign; Jerry Kaplan; Warren B. Rudman; George Bush; University of Arkansas and Northwest Arkansas Legal Services; Yale University Law School; Bill McAlpine; George W. Bush; Alberto Gonzalez; Supreme Court of Texas; Republican revolution; Newt Gingrich; Reagan administration.


Buchsbaum, Aaron (P2002-02)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
December 29, 2001
47 pp.

Aaron Buchsbaum is a Savannah lawyer and leader with Georgia Legal Services; he was interviewed in conjunction with a proposed film on late Savannah civil rights activis W.W. Law.

Among topics discussed: Upbringing in Savannah and "Jim Crow South"; impressions of family; Tulane University and Professor J.C. Van Kirk teaching white supremacy; resignation from Savannah Bar Association over discrimination policies; Savannah Golf Club; American Bar Association's anti-discriminatory policy and Lewis Powell; non-membership in Savannah Bar Association; joining law firm of Brannen, Clark, and Hester, 1958; learning from H. Sol Clark, Perry Brannen, Jr., and Ed Hester; Clark and Legal Aid; Savannah in the 1960s; segregation in Savannah; W.W. Law; Monsignor Toomey and Toomey Committee; non-violent sit-in activities in Savannah; Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); Hosea Williams, NAACP, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC); Judge Victor Mulling and imprisonment and trial of UCLA graduate student Rick Tuttle; Bill Wexler and Alex Lawrence in Tuttle incident; Bernie Harper; Tuttle after incident; assassination of Robert Kennedy at Ambassador Hotel; sit-ins and boycotts at Broughton Street; NAACP Youth Council and Greensboro, North Carolina, sit-ins; W.W. Law; Malcolm McClean as mayor of Savannah; Pratt Adams; Law's good reputation in community; bi-racial aspects of Toomey Committee; Buchsbaum's thoughts about de jure segregation; mother's feelings about Buchsbaum's civil rights involvement; Jene Gadsden; John Simpson; Malcolm McClean; Gadsden and integration of Savannah Bar Association; Ed Hester and Julian Sipple opposed to integration; Gadsden voted first African-American member of Savannah Bar Association; Buchsbaum consulted by Law for legal advice; Georgia Legal Services in late 1960s and early 1970s; opposition by some lawyers to Legal Aid; Steve Gottlieb, Rob Remar and Dixon case; conflicts with Joe Bergen; Bergen's hostility to Georgia Legal Services program; Sonny Seiler and Austin Catts; Vera Mobley; Cubbedge Snow and State Bar of Georgia; Bill Ide, Phil Heiner, Jim Elliott, Charles Lester, members of State Bar and founders of Georgia Legal Services; Charles "Charlie" Sparkman; Bergen and Lawrence; Buchsbaum's original misgivings about Lawrence; funding and the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO); John Cromartie, director of Legal Aid; federal restrictions; Atlanta Legal Aid and Georgia Legal Services as separate foundations; Brief discussion of Hillary Rodham Clinton and Legal Aid; Betty Kehrer as director of national Legal Aid and Defender Association; Cromartie's attributes and responsibilities; Herman Lodge and Burke County; Lodge as first non-lawyer president of Georgia Legal Services; Gov. Jimmy Carter; Gov. George Busbee; organizational skills of Cromartie; Georgia Legal Services summer interns from Emory University Law School; Phyllis Holmen; Bill Broker; Holmen and Phil Merkel; relationship between private bar and Georgia Legal Services in Savannah; community's original aversion to legal services; legal services for indigents; NAACP Freedom Award and Robbie Robinson Award; Young Lawyers Association; Equal Opportunity Authority (EOA); formation of Legal Services Corporation; Matthew Levy of New York; Liberal Party; American Labor Party; Communist Party; Joseph "Joe" Jacobs and Harris Jacobs; Levy as model to Buchsbaum; Savannah High School; American Bar Association; University of Georgia; Harvard Law School; W.W. Law's love of music; Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum; influence of Law; Law's honorary degree from Savannah State University.



Clark, H. Sol (P2002-01)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
December 28, 2001
32 pp.

H. Sol Clark (1972-1977), "Father of Legal Aid in Georgia," is a Savannah lawyer and was involved in the founding of Savannah Legal Aid and Georgia Legal Services; he was interviewed in conjunction with a proposed film on late Savannah civil rights activist W.W. Law.

Among topics discussed: Parents immigrating from Russia; attending Benedictine Military School instead of the University of Georgia; being a lawyer during the Great Depression with Gordon Saucier, mayor of Savannah; Judaism; friendship with African-American named "Yellow" at Tybee Island; growing up with African-American friends; Jewish Educational Alliance; experience with racism at Yale University; daughter's disease and death; Robert D. Abrams of Philadelphia Legal Aid office and introduction to Legal Aid; opposition to Legal Aid by Georgia Bar Association; Savannah Legal Aid office; relationship with W.W. Law and legal aid for African Americans; Clark as the father of Legal Aid in Georgia; E. Smythe Gambrell, Sr.; Legal Aid Committee; National Legal Aid Association; Young Lawyers; founding of Georgia Legal Services; Lester Maddox and the acceptance of Legal Aid funds from federal government; H. Sol Clark Award created by State Bar of Georgia, announced at Savannah meeting; awards won by Clark, Arthur Von Briesen Award; meeting of board of governors of the State Bar Association at the King and Prince Hotel, Saint Simons Island; passage of Legal Aid at Athens meeting; Gus Cleveland; Clark's son and the organization of Athens Legal Aid office, as president of Savannah Bar Association, and Clark's law partner; American Bar Association; King-Tisdell Cottage in Savannah; memories of W.W. Law; King- Tisdell Cottage fountain monument dedicated to W.W. Law; Savannah College of Art and Design; W.W. Law and relationship between whites and African-Americans in Savannah; West Broad Street Museum, once the Wage Earners Savings Bank; the New Deal and Great Society, little opposition in receiving funds; Jimmy Carter and encouragement of Legal Aid; Gov. Maddox and Legal Aid funds.


Cromartie, John L. (P2002-13)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
September 18, 2002
75 pp.

Rev. John Cromartie is the former Executive Director of Georgia Legal Services Corporation and is currently the senior pastor of First United Methodist Church in Cumming, Georgia.

Among topics discussed: born in Gainesville, Georgia; attended Emory University and University of Georgia Law School; clerked under Judge Sidney Smith; Stokely Carmichael, introduced to civil rights movement; Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) and Gainesville Legal Aid; Betty Kehrer; Bill Ide; Bucky Askew; formation of Georgia Indigent Legal Services (GILS); creation of Georgia Mountain Legal Services; key actors in formation of GILS: Ide, Phil Heiner, Jim Elliott, Betsey Neely; Betty Kehrer's involvement in formation of GILS and as first executive director; remaking of GILS and firing of Greg Dellaire from Seattle; Georgia Bar Association; Valdosta; Albany; Camilla; Savannah; Wayne Pressel; Bill Welch; Atlanta; Cromartie as a Christian; treatment of and teachings of poverty in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim faiths; Mary Margaret Oliver, a female lawyer; South Georgia; FBI; murder of Robbie Robinson; Willie Lockett; Fort Valley State University; Jack Ruffin; Augusta; Georgia Court of Appeals; Rufe McCombs of Columbus; H. Sol Clark; OEO; Harry Pettigrew; Legal Services Corporation (LSC); Pierre Howard; Paul Coverdell; Georgia Senate; Roy Barnes; Tom Murphy; Peter Banks; Ronald Reagan; Richard M. Nixon; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW); Howard Phillips; Dan Bradley, raised in Georgia Baptist Children's Home; Spiro Agnew; Maryland; Ed Meese; California Rural Legal Assistance; Scott v. Parham; Crane v. Matthews; George Busbee; Walt Frazier; Stell Huie; Harold Clark; Cubbedge Snow; Andrew Young; Tena Bledsoe; Phyllis Holmen; meetings at Omni Hotel and Unicoi State Park; Texas Rural Legal Aid, Inc.; Florida Rural Legal Services; South Carolina; Alabama; Mississippi; North Carolina; Dixon v. GILS; Joe Bergen; Steve Gottlieb; General Accounting Office (GAO); J.L. & J.R. v. Parham; U.S. Supreme Court; David Walbert; Childrens Foundation; Childrens Defense Fund; Mental Health Foundation; Justice W. John Brennan; Justice Lewis Powell; Justice William Rehnquist; Justice Antonin Scalia; Justice Potter Stewart; Justice David Berger; Justice Harry Blackmun; Lodge case; Mary Cardwell; Webb case; Guthrie v. Evans; Bob Cullen; Williams v. Butts; McIntosh County, Georgia; Praying for Sheetrock; Lisa Krisher; Chicago; Douglasville; Clients Council; Bernie Veney; National Clients Council; Irene Martin; Washington, D.C.; Georgia Clients Council; Veda Canon; Rosita Stanley; Cora Johnson; Soperton; Wrightsville; David Stockwell; Clint Lyons; Newark; National Legal Aid and Defenders Association (NLADA).

Holmen, Phyllis J. (P2002-09)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
July 18, 2002
64 pp.

Phyllis J. Holmen is the Executive Director of Georgia Legal Services Corporation.

Among topics discussed: Attending college at Kent State University and University of Illinois; Chicago, St. Louis, Atlanta, Savannah; trick-or-treating for UNICEF when young; Richard Nixon's administration; Gov. Lester Maddox; Boston; Robby Robinson; Fred and Margaret Davis; work in Burke County, Millen, Jenkins County, Effingham County, and Statesboro; Steve Gottlieb; Atlanta Legal Aid Society; Bob Gill; Elizabeth Youngerman; Phyllis Kravitz; Unicoi State Park; John Cromartie; Greg Dellaire; Chief Justice Benham; Rob Remar; David Webster; Sonny Seiler; OEO (Office of Economic Opportunity); Judge Alex Lawrence; Joe Bergen's suit against legal aid; Cubbedge Snow; Younger Lawyer Division; Dixon v. GILS; Georgia State Prison in Reidsville; Parham v. J.L. & J.R.; S.H. & P.S. v. Ledbetter; Jim Parham; Griffin; Arthur Bolton; Clinton administration and TANIF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families); Department of Human Resources; Medicaid; Doublasville; Columbus; Domestic Violence Task Force; Jimmy Carter; Hillary Rodham Clinton; Conyers; Ronald Reagan; David Stockman; Ed Meese; American Bar Association; Lewis Powell; affirmative action; Organization of Black Employees; Washington, D.C.; Legal Services Corporation; IOLTA (Interest on Lawyer Trust Account); Tena Bledsoe; Georgia Bar Foundation; Georgia Indigent Defense Council; Jim Elliott; Georgia Supreme Court; Linda Kline; Republican revolution of 1990s; Georgia General Assembly; Thurbert Baker; Tom Murphy; Zell Miller; John Cromartie as Methodist minister; Sweat Equity Programs; effects of September 11, 2001, on Legal Services.


Ide, R. William (P2002-03)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
April 29, 2002
65 pp.

Bill Ide is a past president of the American Bar Association (1993-1994). He served as an attorney in the Atlanta and Washington, D.C., law firm of Long Aldridge & Norman and is currently with Monsanto. He has been active with legal aid in Georgia since he was a law student.

Among topics discussed: Attending Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia; Martin Luther King, Jr., not allowed to speak there; University of Virginia Law School; Griffin Bell and Taliaferro County case; desegregation; Taliaferro County in receivership; NAACP; Washington, D.C., Kennedy and Johnson eras; Rome, Georgia, attorney Bob Brenson and Diola Peek case; King and Spalding law firm; realization of unfairness toward the poor; tenants and Atlanta Housing Authority; missionaries from Yale University and Northeast; Ide's mother and Sarah Lawrence College, disadvantaged children; growing up in segregated Pickens, South Carolina; Brenson, Frank Johnson, Elbert Tuttle, John Minor Wisdom, workers with Georgia Legal Services; Atlanta Legal Aid Society and Nancy Cheves; Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO); Michael Padnos; Betty Kehrer; Fred LeClair, Emory University, and Georgia county economic study; Georgia Younger Lawyers Section and legal aid; Jim Elliott; Phil Heiner; Betsy Neely and Reginald Heaver Smith Program ("Reggie"), Virginia Law School; explanation of "Reggie"; Ben Shapiro; funds from Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW); Jim Parham; DFACS; Herschel Saucier; beginning of legal aid approved by Bar at St. Simons meeting; Stell Huie; Georgia Indigent Legal Services Program; common attacks against legal aid; Emory University and legal aid; Ben Johnson; Dean Johnson; Maynard Jackson; Bucky Askew; Dan Bradley; American Bar Association (ABA); Justice Lewis Powell; John Cromartie; importance of State Bar's involvement; H. Sol Clark, Mr. Legal Aid in Georgia; opposition from older, conservative lawyers; Dan Bradley and OEO; formation of Georgia Legal Services outside the Bar; Cubbege Snow, Jr., of Macon; Gus Cleveland; Atlanta Saturday Lawyers; arguments made against legal aid; John Hopkins of King and Spalding; Edgar and Jean Kahn; National Legal Aid and Defenders Association (NLADA); Sargent "Sarge" Shriver; Earl Johnson; Al Kehrer, husband of Betty Kehrer, union organizing; Democratic Party; Steve Gottlieb and Brunswick; Savannah; Joe Bergen; Sonny Seiler; New Orleans. Gov. Lester Maddox acceptance of federal funds for Legal Aid; Maddox considered a populist; Gov. George Wallace of Alabama; Richard Nixon and China; memories of Phil Heiner; core group (Ide, Kehrer, Neely, Parham, Ben Johnson, et al.) meeting at Tasty Town; Ben Shapiro; Austin Ford and Ben Brown, first board of directors; War on Poverty; legal aid as a spinoff of the War on Poverty and Civil Rights; Ide traveling to other states to help with formation of legal aid; Bill Tharpe of North Carolina; Spencer Gilbert of Mississippi; Georgia as a model; fading out of Georgia Indigent Legal Services; Pierre Howard and the budget funding; Mary Margaret Oliver of Gainesville; Nancy Cheves of Columbus; Evans Plowden of Albany; Tom Dennard of Brunswick; decision to go out in the state; Frank Myers of Americus; Milton Carlton of Swainsboro; Albert Fendig of Brunswick; Georgia Criminal Justice Council; funding changes during the Nixon era; Jeff Donfeld; Bud Crowe; Howard Phillips of California; Lewis Powell; threats to Legal Aid: Reagan administration, Murphy Amendment, Edith Green Amendment; limitations to funding; California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. (CRLA); function of lawyers under the English system before Revolution; Talbot "Sandy" D'Alemberte, president of Florida State University and former ABA president; John McKay and Republicans; Warren Rudman; Jack Adams, Cubbege Snow, and Gus Cleveland: Bar leaders; funding debates in state legislature; Pierre Howard; Norman Underwood; hiring Betty Kehrer; Savannah Bar Association opposition to legal aid. Joe Bergen's lawsuit against Steve Gottlieb; Sonny Seiler; Aaron Buchsbaum; suit thrown out; Judge Land; Ruth Combs; Martin "Marty" Layfield; Greg Dellaire of Seattle; Denny Ray; trouble non-southern lawyers had relating to southern culture; Taliaferro County, Judge Bell, receivership; Ide's legal services in Africa and Eastern Europe; comparison with American law system; references to the West Bank and Bosnia; Sonny Seiler in Sea Island, Georgia, 1970s; sheriff of Dawson County, Georgia, and election; Bob Hall and Supreme Court of Georgia; Seiler's law firm burned; threats against Frank Johnson; Brenson and Peek case; shifts in legal system; Austin Ford; Revius Ortique of New Orleans; Dorothy Bolden; issues with Latino community; Fulton County and Latinos; Ide's reflections on legal service career; Phyllis Holmen; Bucky Askew; changes in post World War II America, Eisenhower administration; liberation movements; Brown v. Board of Education; Fourteenth Amendment, legal services' relationship to the U.S. Constitution; responsiveness of State Bar's leadership; Andrew Young and "Save Georgia Indigent Legal Services"; Taliaferro County; trial in Augusta, Georgia; Judge Morgan; Judge Bell; Judge Frank Scarlett and attitude toward Plessy v. Ferguson; Howard Moore; Don Hollowell; Charlie Bloch; discussion on school system; administration of Gov. S. Ernest Vandiver; Discussion on Judge Bell; Sibley Commission; cooperation within legal services.


Krisher, Lisa J. (P2002-10)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
July 18, 2002
68 pp.

Lisa J. Krisher is the Litigation Director of Georgia Legal Services Program.

Among topics discussed: Entrance into Georgia Legal Services; Antioch University, Washington, D.C.; Jack Sammons; experiences of racial and poverty issues in Charleston, South Carolina; Antioch Law School and Legal Services; arrival in Augusta; Burke County; Georgia State Prison at Reidsville; Williams v. Butts; Joe Baird; Bob Cullen; Martha Miller; Ben Allen; due process issues in 1970s and 1980s; rural housing lease challenges; Farmers Home Administration (FmHA); federal courts; class action work; jail cases, Reidsville in particular, prison conditions; NAACP Legal Defense Fund; Judge Anthony Alaimo; Bob Cullen; prohibition on class actions by Legal Services by Congress in 1996; J.R. & J.L. v. Parham; John Cromartie; children placed in mental institutions without being mentally handicapped; prohibition on working with prisoners; attempts of legislation to curb Legal Services; Phyllis Holmen; work with community-based organizations; issues with judges; new recruits: characteristics, training, orientation; funding cuts during Ronald Reagan's administration; Dalton, Savannah; litigation; Phyllis Holmen. Change in litigation since staff attorney at Augusta; FmHA case; National Consumer Law Center; National Senior Citizens Law Center; Housing Law Project; HIV as disability; paradox involving success; lobbying restrictions; Buxton v. Lodge; Lodge v. Rogers; Bob Cullen; Burke County discrimination; Herman Lodge; Legal Service office opened in Waynesboro, Georgia; Burke County school redistricting case; voting rights cases in Augusta; Plant Vogtle; Williams v. Butts; Krisher's love of litigation; Macon; Howard Sokol; Bethlehem Area Community Association in segregated area of Augusta; Community Development Block Grant money; similar case in Alabama; development of other community organizations; commitment of staff and private bar; Atlanta Legal Aid.


Lester, Charles T. (P2002-04)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
April 29, 2002
26 pp.

Charles Lester is a lawyer with the firm Sutherland, Asbill, and Brennan and active in the Georgia Legal Services Program.

Among topics discussed: Childhood in Decatur, Georgia, around Emory University where his father was a professor; Jack and Ruth Boozer; Brown v. Board of Education and integration of Emory University; Ruth Boozer, Lester's mother, and Women's International League of Peace and Freedom; Mrs. Martin Luther King, Sr.; Mrs. Benjamin Mays; Mrs. Stamps Manley, wife of Spelman College president; John Griffin; James Mackay and Glenn Memorial United Methodist Church; Emory University Law School's requirement to participate with Atlanta Legal Aid Society; introduction to Legal Aid; South Side Saturday Lawyers Program and Michael Terry; description of Saturday Program; case of Mrs. Freeman and Atlanta Municipal Market near Grady Hospital and Georgia State University; overlap between Atlanta Legal Aid and Georgia Indigent Legal Services; Lester's transition from Atlanta Legal Aid to Georgia Legal Services; John Cromartie and University of Georgia Law School; membership in Phi Alpha Theta fraternity; Legal Aid loses funding; attacks on Legal Aid by Republicans in Congress, Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan; Jimmy Carter; challenges to the program; Georgia Attorney General Mike Bowers and support of Georgia Legal Services; Linda Kline as president of the Bar; domestic violence; Georgia Bar Foundation; Interest on Lawyer Trust Account (IOLTA); function of IOLTA; John Chandler; Judge Marvin Shoob; Metropolitan Atlanta area; issues concerning size and diversity of state; American Bar Association (ABA); size of Georgia Legal Services; restrictions of Congress on legal services; Savannah lawyer Joe Bergen's opposition to Legal Aid; Mike Doyle; Betty Kehrer; Younger Lawyers Section; Bucky Askew; Martin Huddleston; Askew and Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), National Legal Aid and Defenders Association (NLADA), Legal Services Corporation; Ben Shapiro; Jim Elliott; Bill Ide; Andy Sheldon; Emory Clinic; Bill Brennan; Betsey Neely, University of Virginia Law School, Reginald Heber Smith Fellowship (Reggie); Randolph Thrower; Baxter Jones; Judy O'Brien; Atlanta Volunteer Lawyers Foundation (AVLF); Fulton County; Charlie Carnes; Morris Slattery; Wendy Glassburner; Bonnie Miller; Athens, Clarke County, Georgia, and Garden Springs Mobile Home Park case; Phyllis Holmen and a minority community outside Griffin, Spalding County, sewer service.


Lodge, Herman and Anna (P2002-12)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
September 6, 2002
53 pp.

Herman Lodge (1929-2005) has served on the Burke County Commission since 1982, and was involved in several landmark voting rights cases during the 1970s and 1980s, including Lodge v. Buxton and Lodge v. Rogers.  Anna Lodge was active in the Burke County Improvement Association.

See Herman Lodge interview in Series I:  Black Empowerment in Burke County.

Among topics discussed:  Birth and growing up in Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia; attended school at Fort Valley State University, majored in physical therapy; drafted into the army; Fort Knox, Kentucky; stationed overseas in France and Germany; teaching school in Greensboro, Georgia; work at V.A. Hospital; working and making money in Waynesboro; episode at Piggly Wiggly; creation of Burke County Improvement Association; mistreatment and arrest of black boy at Piggly Wiggly by white cashier and police; help of Georgia Legal Services; Miss Black Burke County beauty pageant, winners received scholarships; coalition of organizations in Burke County; successful organizing; NAACP; obstacles to black voter registration; courthouse registration; Mrs. Lodge's memory of registering to vote; misspelling Lodge's occupation on voter registration; role of fear and intimidation in 1950s and 1960s; night patrols; Holmes girl incident; freedom of choice law in choosing schools; black family terrorized for choosing to attend Waynesboro High School; Bill Holmes; Gilbert Howard; high-school age boy arrested for disrespecting white cashier at Piggly Wiggly; formation of Burke County Improvement Association after the Piggly Wiggly incident; Rev. John Ellis, Presbyterian, first president; initial members:  George Ezra Robinson, Herman Lodge, Anna Lodge, Nana Fickland; description of the one black working at courthouse; blacks on juries; Burke County Improvement Association initiated voter registration; meeting at Harveys Supermarket; initiation of Head Start by Burke County Improvement Association at Blakely School, then Boggs Academy; OEO; Community Action; Davis Park; Central Savannah River Authority (CSRA); help of Georgia Legal Services; early days with Bob Cullen; location of Legal Services' Waynesboro office; bus of blacks go to Supreme Court in voting rights case; David Worley; changes in Burke County, importance to Lodge; change in attitude of people in Burke County; Mrs. Lodge's memories of voting for the first time; votes cast in locked box; insecurity when voting for first time; injustice to black race; Mrs. Lodge reading Supreme Court's description of Burke County; Rogers v. Lodge; Judge Anthony Alaimo; Augusta; Rev. J.J. Smith; Valdosta; Lodges' acquisition of "blacks only" water fountain, now in church; story of "Aunt Creasy" recorded at courthouse; respect shown to and by people; different things taught in school now; new schools being built and recreation facilities upgraded; John Cromartie; Ronald Reagan administration; Perry, Georgia.


McKnight, Veda (P2002-07)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
June 26, 2002
72 pp.

Veda McKnight is a secretary with Georgia Legal Services Program and state coordinator of the Georgia Clients Council.

Among topics discussed: Everett, Georgia; Glynn County; Jesup, Georgia; deer-tongue picking; Manpower Development Program; Community Action Advisory Board; Brunswick, Georgia; Joe Shelby; William "Bill" Welch; Department of Labor; Brunswick Regional Library; Johnny Appleseed Group; proposed merger of five Everett churches, meeting at Shiloh Church; NAACP; Rev. Julius Caesar Hope; Macon; Detroit; Philadelphia; Savannah; McIntosh County case; Samuel "Sammy" Pink; Community Development Block Grant; Thurnell Austin; Shorter Church, Elonia, Georgia; Melissa Fay Greene's book Praying for Sheetrock: A Work of Nonfiction about Sheriff Tom Poppell of McIntosh County; National Clients Council; John Cromartie; Georgia Clients Council; Bernard "Bernie" Veney; Washington, D.C.; Community Education Project; Lou Becker; Georgia Indigent Legal Services (GILS); Department of Human Resources (DHR); Adell, Georgia; Sylvester, Georgia; Soperton, Georgia; Cora Lee Johnson; Hugh Gillis; Johnson in I Dream a World book; Oprah Winfrey; Rosetta Stanley of Tindall Heights, Macon; National Legal Aid and Defenders Association (NLADA); White House, Bill and Hillary Clinton; Lola Fitzpatrick of Columbus; Social Security Administration; Voters Rights Project; SCLC; Phyllis Holman; Youth Project; Willie Lockett of Albany; Community Leadership Empowerment Institute; Sapelo Island Foundation; Kentucky meeting; Lenise Washington; James Copeland; War on Poverty; OEO; Jean and Edgar Kahn; Holly Sklar's Trilateralism; Republicans and Democrats; Europe, Japan, and America; Equal Justice Project; Seattle; Wayne Prussell, Public Benefits Specialist of Clarke County Legal Services, Las Vegas, Nevada; California Alliance for Fair Employment in South Carolina; McKnight's vision of capitalism.


Neely, Elizabeth E. (P2002-11)
Interviewed by: Clifford Kuhn
July 18, 2002
45 pp.

Betsey Neely serves on the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia and works through the Georgia Legal Services Corporation.

Among topics discussed: Emory University Law School; University of Virginia; Bill Ide; Phil Heiner; Linda Evans; Sargent Shriver; Reginald Heber Smith "Reggie" Fellowship; University of Pennsylvania; Emory Community Legal Services; Bedford Pines; location of Georgia Legal Services at intersection of Andrew and Parkway; University of Georgia; Mercer University; Younger Lawyers Section; Dean Ben Johnson; Maynard Jackson; North Carolina Central University Law School; National Labor Relations Board (NLRB); Atlanta Housing Authority; Sen. Herman Talmadge; Fulton County; Atlanta; U.S. Senate; Fred LeClair; Marvin Arrington; Clarence Cooper; Billy Randall; Phyllis Holmen; California; Amherst College; School of Public Health of Harvard University; Lucy Forrester McGough; Louisiana State University Law School; Morris Brown; Nan Orrock; American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU); Great Speckled Bird; Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, North Carolina; Saturday Program; Atlanta Legal Aid Society; Judge Griffin Bell; Younger Lawyers Section; Betty Kehrer; AFL-CIO; Al Kehrer; Ben Shapiro; Jim Elliott; John Meyer; Dan Bradley; Georgia Baptist Children's Home; Eugene McCarthy; Ellis Arnall; Julian Bond; Lester Maddox; Virginia Law Review; Tom Bowman; Techwood Homes; Perry Homes; Sol Clark Fellowships; Ella Mae Brayboy; Nancy Cheves; Buckhead; Georgia Avenue; story of Junior at Grady Hospital; Hill-Burton funds; Macon; "Blue Suede Shoes" Boys; Model Cities.

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