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Special Collections and Archives: Georgia Government Documentation Project: O

A guide to the Georgia Government Documentation Project oral history collection.

Series O. Atlanta's Black Community and Education

Series O. Atlanta's Black Community and Education (P2000-10)

Interviews by Vincent Fort

Interviews in this series, which include information about sit-in protests and desegregation efforts by black Atlanta college students and professors in the early 1960s, were conducted by Vincent Fort as research material for his Master's Thesis.

Restricted: Researcher needs Vincent Fort's permission for any access.

Series O Oral Histories

Bacote, Dr. Clarence (P1978-03)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

November 11, 1978

No Transcript

A professor of History at Atlanta University, Bacote (1906-1981) also was active in black Atlanta politics of the 1940s, and headed the All‑Citizens Registration Committee of 1946.

SEE also Bacote interview in series G.

Among topics discussed: Personal background; Ruby Doris Smith; impressions of sit‑ins; Appeal For Human Rights; marching in Atlanta; arrested and making bail; business community; vertical desegregation;  lunch counter sit‑ins; Jermaine Norma Wilson; city jails; arrest of M.L. King, Jr.; national politics; voting of Atlanta blacks. 1961 sit‑ins and segregation; bread and butter issues; Lonnie King; rural circumstances; role of preachers; views on segregation; breaking barriers at Atlanta airport.

Bond, Julian (P1979-01)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

April 10, 1979

31 pp.

Julian Bond (b. 1940) was a Morehouse College student and  leader in 1960 sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Participation in Atlanta sit‑ins; factors influencing Atlanta sit‑ins; John Kennedy  inaugural address; role of television; role of Martin Luther King; competition between black colleges/centers of higher education(Atlanta, Washington, D.C., Nashville); influence of existentialist philosophy;  fears of the students; role of students' parents; academic allowances; role of university administration, professors; Appeal for Human  Rights; "A Second Look at Atlanta"; attorneys used by students; role of Atlanta University Center presidents Mays, Manley, and Brawley; Committee on the Appeal for Human Rights; SNCC; impact of sit‑ins.

Brawley, Dr. James (P1980-01)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

April 24, 1979

15 pp.

Dr. James Brawley was president at Clark College during student sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Atlanta sit‑ins; awareness of sit‑ins; encouragement of sit‑ins; Council of Presidents; advising students; publication of student statement; effects of statement; concern for the students; movement representative of all campuses; continuation of classes; advisory council at Clark; James Felder; Bob Tucker; cooperation to minimize destruction; Clark participation; Lonnie King; Ben Brown; Carolyn Long Banks; Wilma Long; faculty viewpoint; response to leadership; making allowances for participation; student planning and communication; timing of sit‑ins. Education cases; 1948 Declaration of Universal Rights; cause and effect of sit‑ins; student awareness; NAACP; progress through cooperation; "Burn Baby Burn"; results of desegregation; liaison between faculty and students.

Hollowell, Donald (P1978-04)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

November 30, 1978

12 pp.

Donald Hollowell (1917-2004) was an Atlanta attorney who represented many of the students arrested during the sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Representation of students; impressions of students; planning and coordination; court strategies; various charges; reaction to arrests; defense strategies; unconstitutional arrests; defense attorneys; Vernon Jordan; Horace T. Ward; Howard Moore, Jr.; William H Alexander; cases going to trial; winning test cases on appeal; consequences of arrests; the mood of the times; Lonnie King; Debbie Amos; Dr. Rochelle Sullivan; national movement; NAACP; evidence of a larger movement; point of sit‑ins.



Hornsby, Dr. Alton (P1979-03)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

May 3, 1979

No Transcript

Dr. Alton Hornsby (b. 1940) is a Professor of History at Morehouse during sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Involvement in sit‑ins; Atlanta black influence; desegregation and the city buses; media influence; activists in Atlanta; Atlanta reputation; personal influences; campus activities; administration position; marching on state capitol; faculty advisors; academic leniency for activists; parents of activists; sit‑ins; factionalism; boycotts; nuisance factor; resolutions; negotiations; chronology of movement. Personal motivation; student motivation; Atlanta style of sit‑in.



King, Lonnie (P1979-04)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

April 20, 1979

No Transcript

Lonnie King (b. 1936) was a Morehouse student, leader in sit‑ins, and leader of Committee on Appeal for Human Rights.

Among topics discussed: Atlanta sit‑ins; influence of religion, Greensboro sit‑ins, Korean War, and Montgomery bus boycott; role of Dr. King, SNCC;  role of media; fears and concerns of students; student leadership, 19‑member planning committee; student recruitment for sit‑ins; role of Council of Presidents; Appeal for Human Rights; march on the Capitol (May 17, 1960); fears and concerns of Atlanta University Center presidents; academic allowances; role of parents; emphasis on non‑violence; faculty support; Rich's boycott;  Ku Klux Klan confrontation; personal incidents, threats towards Lonnie King.

Long, Carolyn (P1979-05)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

July 13, 1979

No Transcript

Clark student 1958‑62; secretary of student government 1959‑61; leader in 1960 sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Educational background; Atlanta sit‑ins; student leadership; Committee on Appeal for Human Rights; recommendations of Dr. Mays, Council of Presidents; influence of Dr. King, Montgomery bus boycott, Greensboro sit‑ins; faculty support; emphasis on non‑violence; Chief Jenkins; Dick Rich; Rich's boycott; personal experiences with segregation; fears and concerns of students; Atlanta Inquirer; Long's arrests; role of parents; academic allowances; role of student leaders; personal incidents from student movement.

Long, Ralph (P1979-06)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

no date (1979?)

No Transcript

Principal of John Hope Elementary school during 1960 sit‑ins; Carolyn Long's father.

Among topics discussed: Family background; feelings about sit‑ins; service as bondsman. [Remainder of tape is indecipherable.] Personal background; daughter's involvement in movement; personal views on sit‑ins. [Remainder of tape is indecipherable.]

Mays, Benjamin E. (P1978-05)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

November 29, 1978

27 pp.

Benjamin Mays (1894-1984) was an Atlanta educator, president of Morehouse College during sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Atlanta sit‑ins; influence of Greensboro sit‑ins, Montgomery bus boycott and Martin Luther King; Mays's background; Appeal for Human Rights; Council of Presidents; student leaders; academic allowances; Mays meeting with Atlanta Chamber of Commerce; Born to Rebel. Segregation at lunch counters; Warren United Methodist Church meeting; recommendations of Morehouse board of trustees; Mays role in bailing students out of jail; segregation; impact of Civil Rights Act; Ivan Allen; importance of voting; March on Washington; impact of Dr. King on sit‑ins; congressional investigations regarding King assassination. Dr. King and Vietnam War pacifism; David Lewis; Black Power movement; non‑violence; Peachtree Courier.

Moreland, Lois (P1978-06)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

December 1, 1978

No Transcript

Lois Moreland was a Political Science professor at Spelman College during sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Background; Atlanta sit‑ins; role of Shelly v. Kramer; Appeal for Human Rights; fears and concerns of students; academic allowances; Spelman faculty support; role of parents; influence of Greensboro sit‑ins, Montgomery bus boycott and Dr. King; student leaders.

Richardson, Harry (P1979-07)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

no date (1979?)

No Transcript

Harry Richardson (1901-1990) was an Atlanta educator and president of Interdenominational Theological College during sit‑ins.                  

Among topics discussed: Atlanta sit‑ins; fears and concerns of Council of Presidents; Appeal for Human Rights; academic allowances; student leadership; ITC faculty support; ITC student involvement; role of parents; support of white community; role of media; 1956 manifesto by 70 white ministers; role of Southern Regional Council; Walter White; Jesse O. Thomas.

Rowley, Margaret (P1978-07)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

November 22, 1978

15 pp.

Chair, History department at Morris Brown during sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Atlanta sit‑ins; academic allowances; involvement of students; SNCC; Rowley's role in sit‑ins; comparison violence and non‑violence; Morris Brown human relations board; impact of sit‑ins.

Whalum, Wendell (P1978-08)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

November 21, 1978

27 pp.

Wendell Whalum (1931-1987) was a music instructor, director of Glee Club, student body advisor at Morehouse during sit‑ins.

Among topics discussed: Atlanta sit‑ins; Appeal for Human Rights; student leaders; influence of Greensboro sit‑ins; influence of Dr. Mays; academic allowances; Whalum's advice to students; SNCC; growth of Civil Rights movement; abolition of chapel at Morehouse; role of parents; non‑violence; impact of organization of black leadership; "white flight"; impact of faculty; initiation of student involvement.



Wilson, Mary Ann Smith (P1979-08)

Interviewed by: Vincent Fort

April 13, 1979

No Transcript

Morris Brown student, leader in sit‑ins, secretary of Committee on Appeal for Human Rights.

Among topics discussed: Educational background; Atlanta sit‑ins; influence of Brown v. Board of Education, Greensboro sit‑ins, Montgomery bus boycott, African nationalism; Council of Presidents; Appeal for Human Rights; fears, concerns of students; academic allowances; role of parents; personal encounters with segregation; faculty support; student leadership; Wilson's personal encounters with racism; influence of literature.      

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